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**caddy ***-
A unit of weight used in the far east, and set to 4/3 pounds. The Caddy is
divided into 16 taels, and 100 caddies make a picul.

The tea caddy derives from this unit. **calendar ***-
Calendar is the grouping of days into longer units, suitable for making
appointments and holding festivals.

One does not need a very accurate calendar for simple land management, but for cerinomial and market purposes, the passing of weeks is useful.

An exact time division is more in keeping with navigation.

Calendars tend to be forward looking affairs, either counting days to some date (eg the roman iii Nones means three days to Nones.), or tend to rely on ordinals (eg the year starts on 1/1, meaning the first day of the first month, rather than the cardinal style of 0 month 0 day. The Mayans used an cardinal system, and it is also common in the time system.

It is a mistake to tie the calendar too tightly into the measurement system, or to insist on its use. What happens is that the population see it as a direct attact on their customs and religion. Lessons are to be learnt from the slow adoption of the Gregorian and the bitter resistance put to the French tutti-fruiti calendar. See also protometric. **Calorific values ***-
The freezing of ice, taken as 144°F, is in nature 143.416441

TNT, by explosion, at 1000°C, gives 608.8 kJ/ton, or 640.192 °C or 960 gorems

toe: crude Oil, taken as 10000°C, is closer to 10800°C, or 16200 gorems

tce: Coal, at 7000°C, us 6000 for Bituminous, or 2250 for brown. Firewood is 4300. **carat ***-
A weight for diamonds, and other precious weights. The unit is an arabic
form of the roman siqila, the deal being ounce \ 6 solidus \ 24 carat \ 4 grain.

There is a measure of fineness of gold, based on the gold content in carats and grains in the solidus. 20K gold has 20 carats of gold in the solidus. The ace or unit of this scale is taken as a pound troy, making the units as a carat of 240 gt, and the grain of 60 gt. This is because 24 carat of weight (76.039 gt) no longer corresponds to the shilling (87.27 gt) or a sixth of an ounce (80 gt)205.537 Germany, Prussia = 4.5 * 466.711/10240 205.3036 England 1888 606 d.gr make 1 oz troy 205.4094 England -1887, 9691 ct = 64 ozt. 205.5 France, 205.894 Holland 206.103 Austria 600 d.gr make 1 oz troy 204.000 the TILF karat, 72 make the ledd 204.542 that 80/77 lb makes 96 * 24 carats = 3:15 gn 205.0 International (1877) 200.000 Metric

In france, and elsewhere, 1 oz \ 6 solidus \ 24 karats \ 4 grain

Hobson-Jobson gives 24 carats being 1 oz \ 6 gold solidus \ 24 karat.

In russia, 1 oz \ 6 zolty (gold),

One might fancy in metric, the division of ounce \ 5 solidus \ 25 karat. **cash ***-
A small coin, like a cent, from India and the orient.

In macheen, a tael \ 1000 cash or tsien

In india, a rupee \ 40 dam \ 40 cash **cention ***-
A number of the twelfty system, representing the third power: 100,0000
( . The name is a backformation from mill+ion*dec:*1,728,000)*great thousand*. It means*great hundered*, and is taken as a hundred thousand. **CGS -***cm-g-s**- A version of the Metric LMT system, adopted by the British Association, and used from its inception until it was displaced by the MKS units. The success of this system is largely because it produced the large numbers to allow greek-style fractions.
**CGSS - symmetric ***- This is a form of CGS, where names preserve across a step of 376.730 ohms. It is completely symmetric and uses existing names. See footnote.
**Clarke values ***-
Clarke gives Geodesy p 157.

Metre = 39.369971 inches; Clarke, 1865

toise = 2.13151116 yards; then 1 metre = 36.941 330 171 344 in

metre = 1.09362311 yards; then 1 metre = 39.370 431 960 000 in

klafter = 2.07403483 yards then 1 metre = 37.965 063 450 742 inClarke uses the relation 864000 metre = 443296 toise, which makes here the toise more exact than the metre. Calculating the toise from the metre would give ..115, not ..116.

The units form the basis of a british/metric conversion designated UC.

The indian foot is reckoned at 0.999 995 66 of the imperial foot, converted into metric by either the 1865 or UC metre/inch ratio. **clock-face ***-
When one designs a system for a different base, one place that ought be
looked at first is the way a clock might appear in this base.

Since the clockface is the most complex of dials, one might then take it to other dialed instruments.

The present clock works so well, because the day is divided into x*m hours, and each hour is divided into m*n minutes. The hour marks serve to divide the clock into m divisions of n. n is chosen so that n divides the first digit-place.

In terms of our present clock face, x=2, m=12, n=5. The hour makes two trips per day. The individual hours are marked by the m marks, here 12.

The individual minutes are marked by mn marks, but we can easily read off these, because each two markings of n makes 10.

For other bases, one might consider,

Present = 2 * 12 * 5 (day \ 24 hours \ 60 min \ 60 sec)

Metric = 2 * 20 * 5 (day divides into 40 hours, of 100 minutes.

Base 16 = 1 * 16 * 4 (day \ 16 hours \ 64 minutes \ 64 seconds

Base 18 = 2 * 12 * 6 (day \ 24 hours \ 72 minutes \ 72 seconds

Twelfty = 1 * 12 * 10 (day \ 12 hours \ 120 minute \ 120 second **clock-hour ***-
Of first, the clocks were quite rare, and the passing of significant
points of the day was communicated by ringing a bell or gong. For this
reason, we see the clock/bell/gong name come to be used of hour-like
units.

One might note, eg ghurry, an indian hour-like unit, originally 24 minutes, later 60, also, the name of the water-clock.

Also, one has time as eg 10 o'clock, or Uhr being also a clock as well as an hour. **coal ***- The energy released by a ton of coal is taken as 1 ton × 7000 kelvins.
**Coarse-weight ***-
The set of weights ranging from fractions of a kilogram to tons,
intended for trade in normal objects. One might call these systems Market,
Handel, or Avoirdepoise systems.
n Biblical terms, these are the
*holy*weights.

The normal units associated with countries, eg Paris-measure, is that of the coarse weight.

The unit prototypes were typically constructed by jewellers, and so it is not uncommon to see these units defined in terms of troy measure.

The protometric unit of coarse-weight was intended to be a single-named unit equal to the kilogram, eg grave. The range of coarse-weight units would then run from milli-grave (gram) to kilo-grave (tonne). In practice, the system usuelle was retained long enough for the distinction between fine-weight and coarse weight to disappear, and the established fine-weight extended upwards. **comma-system ***-
A system where the main units correspond to the commas in the number-notation.

The metric practice of using powers of 1000 (eg milli-, kilo-, mega-,), allow one to assign commas in numbers to units, eg 1.609 344 km = 1 km, 609 m, 344 mm. The comma-exponents form the engineering notation.

The comma-unit in metric is the dekare, ie 1,000 sq metres. Metric departs from comma-syatems here. **commercial system ***-
A system known from the US, where certian thousand-like numbers are replaced
by 1000. Taken together the system actually makes sense.
mile 6000 feet A sea-mile is of this length. acre 1000 sq fathom True where the fathom is 79.2 inches ton 2000 pounds First appeared in Manchester, spread to USA. **Continued Fraction ***-
A series of fractions formed by continuing the numerator.

Such are widely used in Number theory to derive fractions, since every rational fraction becomes a termininating continued fraction. Sadly, continued fractions have little application in metrology. **c-system ***-
A system where one uses a full set of units, but also sets c=1. This
provides a conversion between, eg 1 second = 983574900 feet. One can
then reduce the size of exponents by shifting the units.

For example, one might say that an Astronomical unit = 499.012 seconds. **cubic ... ***-
A measure of volume, derived from a cube of given edge, face-area or content.

Such gives the correct meaning, when applied to expressions like cubic acres or litres.

Should not be confused with**... cubed**, which gives the third power of a measure, according to the prism scale. **cubic foot ***-
A measure equal to the volume of a cube of edge one foot.

Roman tradition has a cubic foot of water as 80 lbs. of 12 oz ea, that is, 960 oz. With the newer pounds at 16 oz, one has 60 such lbs. to the foot, still with 960 oz.

The geographic foot, of 12.16 in, gives 60 french lb, so divided.

The rhenish foot, of 313.857 mms, gives 66 lbs of 467.711 gms.

An imperial foot, gives 60 lbs, of 7272 8/11 gt, where 231 wine gallons makes 100 lbs.

A more recent metrological tradition is to replace 1000, for 960. This was the fancy for the imperial system in 1820, but later corrected when the ounce is proven too small. We see for 100 lbs in 12 wine-gallons, that such an ounce would be 436.36 grains, against the actual 437.5. The difference is too much to accomidate here.

The 0.001 cu BI foot, at 436.36 grains, gives a silver-value of 5 s, where the troy ounce yields 5s 6 d. This makes the cubic foot weight a value of 5000 s, or 1250 l..

Where the cubic foot is rated in the roman pattern, we have cu ft \ 80 lb. \ 12 oz \ 6 solidus \ 12 denier., or 1 lb = 12 * 6 * 12 dwt = 864 dwt, later 1152 dwt for the larger pounds. One notes that such a dwt is not against 1 l. = 1 lb., but against the modern pattern for dividing silver up.

With an alternate division, one has 1 cu ft \ 60 lbs. \ 16 oz \ 5 s. \ 12d, which gives 4800 s. to the foot, or 4.00.00 d., twelftywise. **cubit ***-
A measure of 18 inches.

cubos*to bend*; kupten*to bend, stoop*; cubit*elbow*; cubit*ell-measure*

kubos*bollow vertebra*-> cube*idealisd shape of kubos*-> cube*to the third power*

hive is also related to this. **cylinder measure ***-
Measures of volume in terms of a cylinder, of unit diameter and height.

Four cylinder inches equals six cylinders or Pi cubic inches.

See also Hoppus Measure. **cylindric seven ***-
A fantasy system drawn on several rather interesting measures.
- The Wine gallon is 294 cylinder inches = 6*7*7. The derived tun of 252 such gallons makes a 42-inch cylinder.
- The US Bushel is 2738 cylinder inches, rounds to 2744. This makes a gallon of 343 = 7*7*7 cubic inches.
- A dry barrel of 7056 = 84*84 inches is known in the US.
- Russian measures feature units of 28 (ashine = ell) and 84 (fathom) inches.
- There have been railway gauges of 42, 63 and 84 inches.
- An irish mile of 6720 feet, or 7*720 is known. Its proportional yard is 7 yards or 21 feet, and a derived acre exists.

There are enough names already allocated to the cgs system, that one can make a coherent set of definitions.

Franklin | 0.333 564 095 198 152 E-9 C | 125.663 706 143 591 72 E-9 Wb | |
---|---|---|---|

Oersted | 29.979 245 800 000 000 E3 V/m | 79.577 471 545 947 667 E0 A/m | |

Gilbert | 299.792 458 000 000 V | 0.795 774 715 459 4766 788 A | |

millijar | 1.112 650 056 053 618 E-12 F | 15.791 367 041 742 973 E-6 H | |

Gauss | 265.441 872 943 807 E-9 C/m² | 100.000 000 000 000 E-6 T | |

Maxwell | 26.544 187 294 380 723 E-12 C | 10.000 000 000 000 E-9 Wb | |

Biot | 3.767 303 134 617 706 E3 V | 10.000 000 000 000 E0 A | |

millimic | 7.045 938 791 191 630 E-15 F | 1.000 000 000 000 000 E-9 H | |

milliper | 88.541 878 176 203 898 E-15 F | 12.566 370 614 359 172 953 E-9 H | |

Heaviside | 1.062 736 593 309 060 351 E3 V | 2.820 947 917 738 781 434 A | |

Lorentz | 94.096 693 978 164 768 E-12 C | 35.449 077 018 110 320 E-8 Wb |

When one ignores the distinction between electric and magnetic in the definitions, the units neatly fold. While we have conversions of the franklin into coulombs or webers, it is always the same measure of coulombs or webers. The system corresponds to identifying 376.730313462 ohms.

When this is done, we have 1 A = 376.730313462 V, and 1 C = 376.370313462 Wb. The milliper then corresponds to the light centimetre.

**Franklin**- A franklin is that charge, placed at each of two points one centimetre apart, makes a force of one dyne.
**Oersted**- An oersted is that field experienced at a distance of one centimetre from one franklin.
**Gilbert**- A gilbert is the potential equating to an erg per franklin.
**millijar**-
A millijar is that unit of capacitance equal to one franklin per gilbert.

The unit*jar*is equal to a decametre of capacitance, a measure roughly equal to an early capacitor hight Lieden jar. **gauss**- A gauss is the flux experienced at a centimetre from a point charge of one franklin.
**Maxwell**- A maxwell is the flux that flows through a square centimetre orthogonal to a maxwell.
**Biot**- A biot is the vortex current corresponding to an dyne centimetre per maxwell.
**millimic**-
A millimic corresponds to the indction of one maxwell per biot.

This unit hight centimetre of induction. However the royal navy used the unit Mic, corresponding to a millihenry. This corresponds to a decametre of induction, the millimic is therefore the cm of indiction. **milliperm**-
The unit corresponding to a maxwell per gilbert, or a franklin per biot.

The permitivity and permeability of vacuum is 1 milliperm per centimetre. **curl**-
A unit proposed by Leo Young, on anology with
*turn*. One Biot corresponds to a franklin-curl per second. The size of the curl is [c] turns, where c is the numerical value of the speed of light.

The units of the Heaviside Lorentz system can be likewise named.

**Heaviside**- This unit corresponds to the Gilbert or Biot, which become equal.
**Lorentz**- This unit corresponds to the Maxwell or Franklin.
**milliperm**- This unit corresponds to the milliperm, millijar or millimic.
**curl**- The curl remains unchanged.

© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger