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**d ***-
A designation for a
*diminished*scale. For example, if one wants to indicate that some number is diminished to 15 parts (of 16), then one uses D16. Note that D15 * A16 cancells each other out. **dalton ***-
A unit of chemical weight, representing the weight of a proton or neutron.
The final entries show the mas of 1e-27 pounds, and kilograms. When these are
divided by the appropiate Dalton, then the Avagadro number is found.
agu Ag = 108 1820.663 885 9 Int Coulomb Ag = 107.8682 amu O_16 = 16 1822.319 148 Physists until 1960 O_16 = 15.994 915 awu O = 16 1822.820 126 Chemists until 1959 O = 15.9994 umu C_12 = 12 1822.888 484 unified mass unit C = 12.000 000 0 lb. E-27 497.939 775 201 umN 273.159 756 E24 kg. E-27 1097.769 292 728 umN 602.214 179 E24 The international ampere-day is 0.8944 AgF (faradays on agu).

**dam ***-
An indian coin, being 1/40 rupee, in practice, a coin of small account.

The expression*don't give a dam*dates from 1760 [OED], and no doubt comes from this coin. In india, accounts were kept in lakhs of dams, rather like saying ten-thousand dollars is a million cents.

See also razoo. **day ***-
The mean tropical day, or passage from eg, midnight to midnight, or some
other reference of the sun.
Because of the sun's generous light, it serves as the basis of time: all
time units are constructed as day-divisions.

Babylonia, or Sumeria: day \ 12 bera \ 30 ges \ 60 gar

Egypt: day \ 24 hours

India: day \ 30 muhala \ 2 ghati \ 60 palas \ 60 vipalas

China: day \ 12 shichen \ 2 xiaoshi

Cathay: day \ 100 ke

Isreal: day \ 1080 chalakin \ 76 regaim

France: day \ 10 hours \ 100 minute \ 100 second

Modern: day \ 24 hour \ 60 minute \ 60 second

So also these divisions.

Twelfty 1: day \ 12 hour \ 120 minute \ 120 second

Twelfty 2: day \ 120 while \ 120 stunde \ 120 facc

Metric: day \ 40 kilo. \ 1000 clock, hesit

The day serves as a quantum for larger activities, so week, month etc. **DC-triangle ***-
The six units that describe a DC-current: watt, volt, ampere, ohm, 1, siemens.
Nearly every unit can be expressed as a DC-triangle unit, plus a power of
length and time.

For this reason, the final allocation of the hundred-number in the assorted scales, hinged more on this particular set of units, the remaining digits are much more constant.Unit\Rule examples mech gauss magn magn2 fpsc NR BR Siemens S, F - 0 -100 -200 Edison 10 -90 Unit m, s, Hz 0 0 0 0 Unit 0 0 Ohm Ohm, H - 0 100 200 Maxwel -10 90 Ampere A, C - 100 300 300 Oersted 110 310 Volt V, Wb, T - 100 400 500 Galvin 100 400 Watt kg, N, Pa, J, W 100 200 700 800 [Watt] 210 710

The FPSC applies its dimensions differently, such that the Fr(esu) and Fr(emu) both have the unit of Vb, while the corresponding Maxwells Mx(esu) and Mx(emu) have the unit of Bt. **decan ***-
A zodiac sign representing a decimal week. A year comprises
then of some 36 decans.

The twelve hours given to night were set by the rising of 12 decans in the hours of night.

See tennet for discussion on the possible planetary names. **Decimal Time ***-
The day divided decimally as

E+1 tennet,

E+0

E-1 hour (Fr) xun (cn)

E-2 ke (cn) ce

E-3 minute (fr) beat (swatch)

E-4 chronon (infocom)

E-5 second (fr)

E-6 blink **denier ***-
The Roman
*denarius*was a coin, notionally representing 10 as (this is the etymology of this word). In the time of the Roman republic 211 BC, 1 denarius \ 10 as, \ 4 fathings. In later times, a denier gives 16 as.

Karl the great used this as the basis of currency, vis libra \20 solidus \12 denier. Such gives the letters for l. s. d. for money, and d. for pence.

Taking modern money, one might suggest 1 s. \ 12 d. \ 10 a., or 1 s. = 120 a. A modern pound of weight (ie lb. avoir.), might give something like 80 s. or 960 d. Using an ais as 1/10 d., we see 1 lb = 9600 a., or with 1/15, we have 1/14400 of the lb. An as is thence a grain-like unit. **density ***-
The density of solids and liquids is fairly constant across a range of
sphere-diameters from nano-metres to gigametres: that is, from atoms to
stars. Accordingly one selects the mass unit to be proportional to the
cube of the length unit.

At a galactic scale, one selects quite small atomic masses. A sun-mass per cubic light-year sounds fairly impressive, although it is extremely sparse in nature. The mass of the sun is typically 4.3852e30 lb, while an light year is 3.10386e16 ft. The resulting density is then 1.4665 e-19 pounds per cubic foot.

More dense units are made of neutron-matter, such as neutrons packed side to side. Taking a neutron at 1e-15 ft sphere, and weighing a dalton, we have densities 3.6608511 e19 lb/cu ft.

Quark soups are even denser. The greatest density is achieved in the quantum black hole, which places 47.988e-9 lb in a sphere of diameter of 17.6856e-40 ft, all together, 8.675E108 lb/cu ft.

For practical measurement systems, it is useful to set density to be a managable size: ie water in the range of 1 to 1000. **Density-Velocity-Time ***-
Because density and velocity are fairly independent
of size, one can select these base units, such that the scale of time defines
the relative size of the unit. The scale is chosen so that the vast bulk
of the scales have a positive power in each element.

From this, one can set D, V, T to be the 200th, 10th and 1st power of a base unit, and set thence a 'dimension-number' for quantities, which act like a logrithm of the dimensions of a unit.

The Gaussian quantities for EM (from which the SI units derive, fall inbetween, in the 100 units. See gaussian numbers.Nr. D-V-T SI unit Quantities [alt. units] 0 0-0-0 (-) angle, thremm 1 0-0-1 s time 9 0-1-M m/s/s acceleration 10 0-1-0 m/s velocity 11 0-1-1 m length 20 0-2-0 J/kg specific energy 21 0-2-1 m²/s kinetic viscosity 22 0-2-2 m² area 31 0-3-1 m³/s² Traction (Grav.const * mass) 32 0-3-2 m³/s volume flow 33 0-3-3 m³ volume, moment of area 44 0-4-4 m second moment of area 200 1-0-0 kg/m³ density 210 1-1-0 kg/m².s flow-density 211 1-1-1 kg/m² mass per area, gee-pressure [psi] 220 1-2-0 Pa pressure, stress, energy density 221 1-2-1 Pa.s dynamic viscosity [poise] 222 1-2-2 kg/m linear density 224 1-2-4 - gee-mass [slug] 230 1-3-0 W/m² power-flux density 231 1-3-1 N/m surface tension 232 1-3-2 kg/s mass-flow 233 1-3-3 kg mass , gee-force [lbf] 241 1-4-1 W/m ? 242 1-4-2 N force 243 1-4-3 kg.m/s momentum, gee-power [ft.lbf/s] 244 1-4-4 kg.m moment of mass, gee-energy [ft lbf] transport [ton-mile] 252 1-5-2 W power 253 1-5-3 J energy 254 1-5-4 J.s action [eg planck constant] 255 1-5-5 kg.m² second moment of mass, rotational inertia. **dicker ***-
A measure of 10 in number, similar to a dozen. The unit is used, for example,
in the fur trade, where four dickers make a timber.

As a verb, it means to sell a dicker where one normally expects a dozen. It is not so much short-changing, since the unit is correctly marked. It is more akin to the less obvious fraud on expectations, rather than fraud on fact. **digit ***-
A length roughly equal to the width of a finger. Normally 16 of these
make the foot, and is the usual division of the foot after the Roman inch.

As a 16th measure, it becomes the digit-of-a-yard [nail] (ie 2 1/4 inches), and the digit-of-a-hundredweight [clove], or 7 lb. **dimension ***-
In metrology, the number of variables not derived in the body of equations.
One can increase or reduce the free dimensions, by making extra equations
into fixed form, or free form.

The SWS systems typically have a single dimension, eg time.

The Electrodynamic systems have two dimensions, length or time, and mass or force.

The Gaussian constructions have typically three dimensions, LMT. Thremmage is added as a typically fourth one.

Modern SI has seven dimensions. Of these, the Ampere and mole are largely dependent on size on the LMT scale. Only the candela represents a new quantity: this is borrowed from the fps candle. **Dimension Number ***-
Any of the scales that set the measurement dimensions to numerical values.
These are of two kinds. The quantities like length, mass and time are
then treated as powers of a common unit.

**Common Scale**maps multiple common dimensions onto the same number. Such scales are useful where there is free transition between units of different quantities, such as the SWS or Electrodynamic Scales.

**Distinct Scales**tries to map dimensions such that individual numbers are associated with individual numbers. **displacement ***-
The use of
*displacement*to represent the electrical flux is a result of the rationalisation, along with a back-formation.

The original sense is shown in the ICT, as a movement of electrical charge to counter a flux passing through a body. In this sense, charge is*displaced*in much the same way as water might be displaced by a ship.

The measure is what we would now call*induced polarisation*. Under rationalisation, the induced polarisation or displacement of charge becomes equal to the reduction of the passing flux, and hence the flux becomes the*flux of displacement*. **Division ***-
A unit created by, or for the purpose of, dividing. Such units are typically
of the form of powers of two and other small primes. See also multiple

The gross of 144 in number is a superdivision: the intent of the gross is to allow its division into dozens. **DKD --***dm-kg-ds-mK*[Moon] *-
The Moon system is one of the nine systems mentioned in Dresner.

This is my particular implementation of it, influenced by the ILF system. The base and derived units are all within 1000 of the MKS units, and are more suited for practical applications. The following list shows the coherent units of this system.kilo gram, pascal hecto tesla, poiselle deka newton, watt, volt, ohm, hertz - joule, litre, henry, ampere, weber, glug, calorie deci metre, second, siemens, coulomb centi- farad milli- kelvin,

gravity = 0.980665 dm/ds/ds

density of water = 1 kg/dm³

specific heat = 4.1868 J/kg mK **DKTS --***dekametre - kiloton - second - kelvin**-
Although no one has suggested this system as a serious contender, it has
a supprisingly large number of named units not elsewhere found.
are 1000 sq m area at 1 kgf/cm² pressure (1 atmosphere technical) bar 100,000 Pa pressure (1 atm = 1.01325 bar), whence, millibar. jar 10 m (esu) Capacitance approx a Lieden Jar leo 10 m/s/s galiLEO: gravity = 0.980665 leos mic 10 m (emu) Inductance = microhenry, Royal Navy 1920 unit ton(N) gigacalorie 1 ton * 1000°C = 1 kiloton.kelvin (nuclear explosions)

The system is close to being a Standard Water System based on a second. **dollar ***-
The original plan for the US dollar was to be an ounce of silver, where the
ounce being a cube of water, 1.2 inches on the side. Since the plan was to
have a foot of 12 inches, where either 36 or 40 make the seconds pendulum,
we have 39.118 BI inches for this pendulum, and the US inch being either
1.08611 or 0.9770 in, the ounce becomes either 559.7 or 406.833 gt.

The system never took off, and an interim proposal of 437.5 or 436.25 gt was passed. In the end, a metric ounce of 25 g = 358.809gt was used.

Silver coins of weights of 2, 5, 10 dwt were struck, at 20 dwt to the dollar, and a nickle coin of 4 dwt, where 80 make the dollar.

The US dollar of 1792 was 416 gt of std silver, or 371 gr 5 mites pure.

The Spanish dollar of eight reals, gives 550.209 gr (spanish), or 394.46 gt fine silver.

The US dollar was established by the Mint Act of 1801, replaces previous colonial money at a rate of 6s (New England, NY (state), OH) , 7s 6d [pennsylvania, NJ, MY, DE) , 8s, (NY, much of the west) or 4s 8d (GA, SC) (according to the state in question.

The decimal measures called for a plan where the foot was 10 inches, and a cubic inch of water reckoned at one ounce. According to an imperial foot, and 12 gallons (US) being a cental (100 lbs.), we get the ounce as 436 4/11 grains. In terms of sterling, this as a silver coin makes 5s.

The currency then has coins of 5s, 2s 6d, 1s 3d and 6d in silver, and a 3d nickel coin. This explains why the nickel is four times heavier than the corresponding silver coin.

The actual ounce used in framing the US money is the ozm (metric oz.), which is rated at 385.809 grains. This would make the US dollar at 4s 6d. (Where most units hight dollar were 4s. 2d. or 50 d.) This is the value it held during most of the 19C.

By the second world war, the US dollar was rated at 5s. stg, or (according to a book for US servicemen in australia), 6s. 3d. AU. Since the pound in Australia is only four parts of sterlign, this also corresponds to 5s. stg.

Since the World War, the Marshall aid plan introduced to alleviate the damages of war has seen a net export of wealth to america: that is, the USA is currently the recieving end of large amounts of aid from the developed world.

One notes, for example, that in 1977, the US dollar traded at 9s AU, which gives 7s. 2½d. stg. It ended up at a high of 12s. 6d. AU which is 10s. stg, but has since "dropped into the cellar" to give 10s 6d AU, or 8s 4d stg. That is, it is still nearly twice what it ought be. **doubloon ***-
A spanish coin, of 9s. 4d. stg. This is \2 escudo, 4 peso or 32 reales.

aka Louis d'Or, Fredrich d'or, pistole, **DSWS -***Decimal SWS**-
A decimalised day SWS system, using the period of time of 0.0864
seconds.
length metre = 13.660 035 860 foot = 4.163 578 930 683 mass kilogram = 2.548 915 970 pound = 1.156 168 835 913 time second = 11.574 074 074 day = 1 000 000.000 000 thremm degC = 5 831.944 460 246 degF = 3 239.969 2

© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger