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**fathom ***-
PIE petu (to spread out)

Gk petalon (to spread) -> petal (flower-spread-thing)

Ladin petera (to open) -> patent

pace (stretch legs) -> pace out -> pace (measure of 30 or 60 inches)

fathmos (outstretched arms, embrace)

fatha [gothic] something that surrounds, hedge (no measure sense in gothic

fathom (measure) -> Germ famm, faden (thread); Eng fathom (probe metaphoric depth of) **Fineness ***-
A measure of content of silver or gold in metal. These metals are normally too soft
for use, and a small amount of base metal is added.

**Gold**unit (solidus) \ 24 carats [5s] \ 4 grains [1s3d]

**Silver**unit \ 12 ounces [10s] \ 20 pennyweight [6d], now 1000 [1 1/2d] fine.

The unit for twelfty might be something like unit \ 120 solidus \ 12 denier. **Fine-Weights ***-
A subdivision of weight, referring to items traded in units
ranging from milli-grams to kilo-grams. In former times, these were
the provence of the guild-systems like
apothecaries and troy systems.

In terms of biblical systems, fineweight systems are profane systems. **foot ***-
A measure notionally the length of the foot. As with many units, this
tends to get larger, until it is more shoe-sized than foot-sized.

The foot is typically divided into 16 digits, the division into 12 inches stems from the Romans. **Foreign ***-
A designation of a system, which has useful properties, but for which there
are features that prevent the practical use as a domestic system. For example,
the KU system is well suited for atomic constants, but the operating base
is itself a partially known constant. So while these constants are more
perfectly known in that system, the size of the units in a practical system
is somewhat unknown.

Pidgin and Guild units are typically prototyped on foreign units. **FPSC system ***-
A modification of the imperial system to allow for electrical
units according to UES NR rule. Because of the way the discovery
of this system unfolded, its charge dimension does not line up with the SI
version. This system is normally implemented with the UL conversion
factors.

foot = 299792458/983574900 metre

pound = 0.4535923392 kilogram

gorem = 410/273.16 kelvin

The Electrical quantities in the fpsc have different dimensional analysis (since the fpsc is a ηκ system, so the SI units can convert into either of the fpsc units. The more common conversion is into the first-named unit.Coulomb 94.5516609965527 Verber Byot Weber 0.250979699766374 Byot Verber Ampere 94.5516609965527 Oerstedt Galvin Volt 0.250979699766374 Galvin Oerstedt Farad 376.730313461770 Edison-Seconds seconds Henry 2.654418729438E-3 Maxwell-Seconds second Siemens 376.730313461770 Edison (unit) Ohm 2.654418729438E-3 Maxwell (unit) **Foot Pound Vipala ***- See ZFPV System.
**Fraction systems ***-
Any of the modes of expression values other than whole numbers.

Sumerian division

Egyptian sum of recriprocals

Greek comparisons in smaller units

Roman weight fractions

Added fractions or nested numerators

Radix fractions, or addeded tenths.

There are other fraction types used in mathematics, but none of these have enjoyed any practical applications in metrology.

Continued fractions, or nested denominators.

There are several styles of representation, such as lookup and lookdown fractions.

That historically several fraction systems arose against a single multiple system is due to that division is a 'deeper' process in the brain and has been solved in different ways historically. Most of the fraction methods still are in use. See alao superdivision and submultiple. **Freeze ***- The term for what happens when a segment looses currency. For example, the sexagesimal division of the degree formerly went to many orders: Newton gave a measure in terms of sixth and seventh of a degree (meaning 60**-6 and 60**-7), but the sexagesimal division segment has since lost its currency. Units in common use (minute and second) remained in force, but higher divisions have become replaced by decimal divisions. See also third
**French System ***-
The system of units used in the scientific world before the Metric system
displaced it.

Length: toise \ 6 feet \ 12 inches \ 12 lines

Weight: pound \ 16 ounce \ 8 drachm \ 3 scruple \ 24 grainScale metre in lines gram in grains Comment PA 443.44 18.82715 astronomically determined PR 443.296 18.82715 by survey: used as final legal basis.

© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger