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- fathom *
PIE petu (to spread out)
Gk petalon (to spread) -> petal (flower-spread-thing)
Ladin petera (to open) -> patent
pace (stretch legs) -> pace out -> pace (measure of 30 or 60 inches)
fathmos (outstretched arms, embrace)
fatha [gothic] something that surrounds, hedge (no measure sense in gothic
fathom (measure) -> Germ famm, faden (thread); Eng fathom (probe metaphoric depth of)
- Fineness *
A measure of content of silver or gold in metal. These metals are normally too soft
for use, and a small amount of base metal is added.
Gold unit (solidus) \ 24 carats [5s] \ 4 grains [1s3d]
Silver unit \ 12 ounces [10s] \ 20 pennyweight [6d], now 1000 [1 1/2d] fine.
The unit for twelfty might be something like unit \ 120 solidus \ 12 denier.
- Fine-Weights *
A subdivision of weight, referring to items traded in units
ranging from milli-grams to kilo-grams. In former times, these were
the provence of the guild-systems like
apothecaries and troy systems.
In terms of biblical systems, fineweight systems are profane systems.
- foot *
A measure notionally the length of the foot. As with many units, this
tends to get larger, until it is more shoe-sized than foot-sized.
The foot is typically divided into 16 digits, the division into
12 inches stems from the Romans.
- Foreign *
A designation of a system, which has useful properties, but for which there
are features that prevent the practical use as a domestic system. For example,
the KU system is well suited for atomic constants, but the operating base
is itself a partially known constant. So while these constants are more
perfectly known in that system, the size of the units in a practical system
is somewhat unknown.
Pidgin and Guild units are typically prototyped on
- FPSC system *
A modification of the imperial system to allow for electrical
units according to UES NR rule. Because of the way the discovery
of this system unfolded, its charge dimension does not line up with the SI
version. This system is normally implemented with the UL conversion
foot = 299792458/983574900 metre
pound = 0.4535923392 kilogram
gorem = 410/273.16 kelvin
The Electrical quantities in the fpsc have different dimensional
analysis (since the fpsc is a ηκ system, so the SI units can convert
into either of the fpsc units. The more common conversion is into the
The UES derives from this equality in the FPSC.
|Coulomb|| 94.5516609965527 || Verber || Byot
|Weber|| 0.250979699766374 || Byot || Verber
|Ampere|| 94.5516609965527 || Oerstedt || Galvin
|Volt|| 0.250979699766374 || Galvin || Oerstedt
|Farad|| 376.730313461770 || Edison-Seconds || seconds
|Henry|| 2.654418729438E-3 || Maxwell-Seconds || second
|Siemens|| 376.730313461770 || Edison || (unit)
|Ohm|| 2.654418729438E-3 || Maxwell || (unit)
- Foot Pound Vipala *
See ZFPV System.
- Fraction systems *
Any of the modes of expression values other than whole numbers.
Egyptian sum of recriprocals
Greek comparisons in smaller units
Roman weight fractions
Added fractions or nested numerators
Radix fractions, or addeded tenths.
There are other fraction types used in mathematics, but none of these
have enjoyed any practical applications in metrology.
Continued fractions, or nested denominators.
There are several styles of representation, such as lookup
and lookdown fractions.
That historically several fraction systems arose against a single
multiple system is due to that division is a 'deeper'
process in the brain and has been solved in different ways historically.
Most of the fraction methods still are in use. See alao
superdivision and submultiple.
- Freeze *
The term for what happens when a segment looses currency.
For example, the sexagesimal division of the degree formerly went to
many orders: Newton gave a measure in terms of sixth and seventh of a
degree (meaning 60**-6 and 60**-7), but the sexagesimal division segment
has since lost its currency. Units in common use (minute and second)
remained in force, but higher divisions have become replaced by decimal
divisions. See also third
- French System *
The system of units used in the scientific world before the Metric system
Length: toise \ 6 feet \ 12 inches \ 12 lines
Weight: pound \ 16 ounce \ 8 drachm \ 3 scruple \ 24 grain
The reduction of the metre from 443.44 lines to 443.296 lines, increased the
density of metric water from 999.026114 to 1000 kg/m³. In practice, the
maximum density of pure water is 999.972 kg/m³.
|Scale|| metre in lines || gram in grains || Comment
|PA|| 443.44 || 18.82715 || astronomically determined
|PR|| 443.296 || 18.82715 || by survey: used as final legal basis.
© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger