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Glossary: Home Tables A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T Th U V W X Y Z

fathom *
PIE petu (to spread out)
      Gk petalon (to spread) -> petal (flower-spread-thing)
      Ladin petera (to open) -> patent
      pace (stretch legs) -> pace out -> pace (measure of 30 or 60 inches)
      fathmos (outstretched arms, embrace)
      fatha [gothic] something that surrounds, hedge (no measure sense in gothic
      fathom (measure) -> Germ famm, faden (thread); Eng fathom (probe metaphoric depth of)
Fineness *
A measure of content of silver or gold in metal. These metals are normally too soft for use, and a small amount of base metal is added.
      Gold unit (solidus) \ 24 carats [5s] \ 4 grains [1s3d]
      Silver unit \ 12 ounces [10s] \ 20 pennyweight [6d], now 1000 [1 1/2d] fine.
      The unit for twelfty might be something like unit \ 120 solidus \ 12 denier.
Fine-Weights *
A subdivision of weight, referring to items traded in units ranging from milli-grams to kilo-grams. In former times, these were the provence of the guild-systems like apothecaries and troy systems.
      In terms of biblical systems, fineweight systems are profane systems.
foot *
A measure notionally the length of the foot. As with many units, this tends to get larger, until it is more shoe-sized than foot-sized.
      The foot is typically divided into 16 digits, the division into 12 inches stems from the Romans.
Foreign *
A designation of a system, which has useful properties, but for which there are features that prevent the practical use as a domestic system. For example, the KU system is well suited for atomic constants, but the operating base is itself a partially known constant. So while these constants are more perfectly known in that system, the size of the units in a practical system is somewhat unknown.
      Pidgin and Guild units are typically prototyped on foreign units.
FPSC system *
A modification of the imperial system to allow for electrical units according to UES NR rule. Because of the way the discovery of this system unfolded, its charge dimension does not line up with the SI version. This system is normally implemented with the UL conversion factors.
      foot = 299792458/983574900 metre
      pound = 0.4535923392 kilogram
      gorem = 410/273.16 kelvin
The Electrical quantities in the fpsc have different dimensional analysis (since the fpsc is a ηκ system, so the SI units can convert into either of the fpsc units. The more common conversion is into the first-named unit.
Coulomb 94.5516609965527 Verber Byot
Weber 0.250979699766374 Byot Verber
Ampere 94.5516609965527 Oerstedt Galvin
Volt 0.250979699766374 Galvin Oerstedt
Farad 376.730313461770 Edison-Seconds seconds
Henry 2.654418729438E-3 Maxwell-Seconds second
Siemens 376.730313461770 Edison (unit)
Ohm 2.654418729438E-3 Maxwell (unit)
The UES derives from this equality in the FPSC.
Foot Pound Vipala *
See ZFPV System.
Fraction systems *
Any of the modes of expression values other than whole numbers.
      Sumerian division
      Egyptian sum of recriprocals
      Greek comparisons in smaller units
      Roman weight fractions
      Added fractions or nested numerators
      Radix fractions, or addeded tenths.
There are other fraction types used in mathematics, but none of these have enjoyed any practical applications in metrology.
      Continued fractions, or nested denominators.
There are several styles of representation, such as lookup and lookdown fractions.
That historically several fraction systems arose against a single multiple system is due to that division is a 'deeper' process in the brain and has been solved in different ways historically. Most of the fraction methods still are in use. See alao superdivision and submultiple.
Freeze *
The term for what happens when a segment looses currency. For example, the sexagesimal division of the degree formerly went to many orders: Newton gave a measure in terms of sixth and seventh of a degree (meaning 60**-6 and 60**-7), but the sexagesimal division segment has since lost its currency. Units in common use (minute and second) remained in force, but higher divisions have become replaced by decimal divisions. See also third
French System *
The system of units used in the scientific world before the Metric system displaced it.
      Length: toise \ 6 feet \ 12 inches \ 12 lines
      Weight: pound \ 16 ounce \ 8 drachm \ 3 scruple \ 24 grain
Scale metre in lines gram in grains Comment
PA 443.44 18.82715 astronomically determined
PR 443.296 18.82715 by survey: used as final legal basis.
The reduction of the metre from 443.44 lines to 443.296 lines, increased the density of metric water from 999.026114 to 1000 kg/m³. In practice, the maximum density of pure water is 999.972 kg/m³.

© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger