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Glossary: Home Tables A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T Th U V W X Y Z

tael *
A chinese weight, equal to 1/12 lb avoirdepoise. The unit in chinese hight ling, divides into 1,000 cash or tsien.
      By dr Wells Williams, equal to 579.84 grains, or 1.207 oz tr. The trade unit is 583.333 grains
      Cash is a very small coin, is related to casse case.
tea chest *
A box, typically 18 by 18 by 27 inches, for shipping tea. eg 42.44.63 = 116 L or about 3 bushels.
tegum *
A coherent scale, formed by the tegum product. The derived units are 1/n! of the cubical scale. Names have not been formerly established for these, although these are taken.
      tegmolatric or diagonal
      tegmohedric or rhombic
      tegmochoric or octahedral
tennet *
A period of ten nights, cf fortnight = 14 days.
      Using the ancient sequencing, and ten modern planets, one might suppose that the days run as follows:
   Moon  Mercury  Venus  Sun   Mars  Jupiter  Saturn  Uranus  Neptune  Pluto
   Mon                   Sun                   Sat                      Plu
         Woden                 Tue                    Uranus
                  Friya              Thor                     Neptune
   Sun    Mon           Tue     Wed           Thu    Fri         Sat
   Sun    Mon    Uran   Tue     Wed   Nept    Thu    Fri   Plu   Sat

A period of two tennets contains 14 week days, and 6 weekend days, while a period of 21 days contains 15 week-days, and 6 weekend days. Weekends are always three days long.
A twelfty system based on a close approximate to the desired system, using rational fractions to convert from the metric system.
      foot = metre * 32/105
      mark = kilogram * 400/1701 ; water = 120
      second = second / 2
      degreeH = kelvin * 5/6
      charge = coulomb * 100/1701 ; UES MI = 120**4
time *
In the scientific world, this is taken to be all intervals of time.
      In the field of metrology, it is useful to distinguish divisions of the day from the groupings of the day into calendar units.
      A precise division of the day does not infer a precise calendar and vice versa. Civilisations need a calendar to function, but can get by with 'late afternoon', while for navigation purposes, one does need units of time.
      Also, it must be noted that a given system that defines a speficic time scale can work equally well under the Christian or Hindu calendars, but not at all under the Christian or Hindu clocks.
An SWS scale, derived from base 20, but used with twelfty. This is the ILF scale, slightly adjusted to allow for rational electric units.
      inch = metre / 40.8
      ledd = kilogram * 0.014688
      facc = second / 20
      secJ = kelvin / 17424
      [charge] = coulomb * 60: UES MI = 1, thence:
      [charge] = coulomb / 240 UES MI = 14400.
A twelfty system based on simple conversions from metric, while still retaining the twelfty supplementals.
      cubit = metre / 2
      grave = kilogram / 0.96 : density of metric water = 120 grave/cu cubit
      second = second / 2
      degreeH = kelvin / 1.2
      charge = coulomb / 0.576 : UES MI = 120**3
Tower System *
A system of weights and measures eventually replaced by other systems.
      The troy weight represents the weight system of the tower system. The avoirdupoise is what would happen if the tower system was allowed to evolve.
      The units are extremely close to the Prussian system. The foot is very close to the half-ell of 2.125 prussian feet, and the pound is very close to the prussian pound, close enough to suggest a common derivation of these units, eg through the Hansiatic League.
length inch

12 inches
3 feet
6 feet
15 feet
40 rods
8 furlongs
1.1 in
1.1 ft
3.3 ft
6.6 ft
1 rood
1 furlong
1 mile
27.94 mm
335.28 mm
1.0584 m
2.0116 m
5.0292 m
201.168 m
1.609344 km
area sq fathom
sq mile
36 sq ft
6.25 sq fath 
40 perches
4 roods
640 acre
0.001 acre
1 perch
1 rood
1 acre
1 sq mile
4.046856 m²
25.292853 m²
1011.7141 m²
0.4046856 ha
2.589988 km²

32 grains
20 dwt
12 ounces
0.703125 gr
22.5 gr
0.9375 tr oz
11.25 tr oz
45.561733 mg
1.457975 g
29.1595095 g
349.914114 g

20 grain
3 scruple
8 drachm
16 ounce
15 pound
8 stone
20 cwt
0.9375 grain
18.75 grain
0.1285714 oz
1.0285714 oz
16.457142 oz
1.1755102 st
123.428571 lb
1.102040 ton
60.748978125 mg
1.214979562 g
3.644937688 g
29.1595095 g
466.552152 g
6.99828228 kg
55.98625824 kg
1.119725164 t
Trade Systems *
A set of units or conventions designed to facilitate trade between countries using divers measures.
      Guild Units are units notionally the same size, but the precise implementation of the unit varies from country to country. For example, the Apothecaries weights are meant to replicate a system of weights found in Medicine books of the time, but the size of the ounce varies from country to country.
      Pidgin Units are units of local denominations defined in terms of units of a foreign power. Although typically associated with colonial powers, the thing can arise quite naturally. Its association with colonial powers is more the same technological differences that allowed colonisation in the first place.
      Import-Units are foreign denominations, originally used for the import of goods, eventually the denomination itself is imported into the system. Unlike guild or pidgin weights these become part of the native system.
Troy Weights *
A series of weights formerly used amongst Jewelers. While the sizes of the units resemble those formerly used at the Troyes in France (where important trade fairs were held), the actual size of the domination is defined in terms of the local standard.
      Since the local standard was formerly crafted by the Jewelers, the units were often constructed to be a measure of troy weights.
      Until the fire of 1834, the imperial standard was 2 lb troy (11520 gt), but the standard constructed after was 7000 gt.
pound 12 ounces 5760 gt
ounce 20 pennyweight 480 gt
pennyweight 24 grains 24 gt
grain - 1 gt
The units have been extended upwards and downwards, though neither of these found great application.
      ton = 2000 lb; hundredweight = 100 lb
      grain = 20 mites; mite = 24 droit; droit = 20 periot; periot = 24 blank.
twelfty *
A number system based on a six-score hundred (dec: 120), formerly used in pre-Christian northern Europe.
twelfty-time *
In practical applications, the division of the day for use with the twelfty-system is to divide it as follows. Note that the second system is not in general use, the main application being the time system of the TILF system.
      day \ 12 hours \ 120 minutes \ 120 seconds \ 120 thirds
      day \ 120 bells \ 120 while \ 120 facc
The circle and higher spheres are divided into straight powers of 120, as follows. My first calculations in 4d was to show that the solid angle of the 600choron {3,3,5} was 33s 15f 60
      2d: circle \ 120 degree \ 120 minute \ 120 second
      3d: sphere \ 120 flakes \ 120 minute \ 120 second
      4d: glome \ 120 s-unit \ 120 f-units \ 120
The nautical units based on the twelfty-system are related to the formula of one mile per minute, as follows
      earth circle \ 14400 mrinal \ 120 segments ( \ 75 geographic feet)

© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger