-: U :-


Glossary: Home Tables A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T Th U V W X Y Z

U7 *
A set of imperial conversion factors, based on factors that are made of the primes 2, 3, 5, 7.
      foot = 32/105 metre = 64/21 Linn ; 1 metre = 3ft 3 3/8 in
      pound = 200 / 441 kg, Pondd ; 1 kg, Pondd = 15435 grains

Using this conversion factors, we see that 1 mm : 1 kg as 1 in : 4 stones. Also, 25 mm : 1 inch as 1 tonne : 1 ton.
      Dividing the kg into 35 oz \ 7 dr \ 3 scr \ 7 carats \ 3 grains, gives an oz of 441 gt, and the corresponding lb of 7056 gt. The kg is then 2 lb 3 oz exactly.

UB (1895) *
A set of imperial conversion factors, being the combination of Broch's pound and a yard, constructed in the style of the metre, and measured for the BIPM of 1898.
      foot = 0.9143992/3 metre Beniot A (1895)
      pound = 7/15.43235639 kilogram
Beniot found the yard to be 0.9143992 metres. This unit is also used in Geodetic surveys, the two principal forms being as follows:
      39.370 113 000 000: Beniot B (1895) 1 metre = 39.370 113 inches
      39.370 113 184 701: Beniot A (1895) 1 yard = 0.9143992 metres
In 1883, the kilogram was 15432.35639 grains for Broch
UC (1878) *
The 1878 set of imperial conversion factors, based on
      foot = 1/3/1.09362311 metres: Clarke 1866: 1 metre = 1.09362311 yards
      pound = 7/15.43235639 kilogram: by Broch, 1 kilogram = 15432.35639 grains
Captian Clarke did a geodetic survey of the world, the results of which are in use to this day, although satelite surveys are progressively displacing these. Because the surveys are this precise, a number of slightly different forms are known:
      39.370 431 960 000: 1 metre = 1.09362311 yards: Exact: see Clarke.
      39.370 432 000 000: 1 metre = 39.370432 inches
      39.370 432 014 867: 1 foot = 0.304 797 265 metres [Australia]
Clarke also found these earlier measurements, much used in Geodetic measurements.
      39.369 971 101 347: 1 yard(1865) = 0.9144025 metre
      39.370 141 967 763: 1 Indian ft = 0.99999566 ft(1865)
      39.370 142 000 000: 1 Indian foot as commonly used.
UES -- Unified Electric System *
The UES is a system of prefix and suffix rules, designed to quickly identify the derived systems. In its simplest form, it regards the gaussian as a mix of electric and magnetic units, and unrationalised as a mix of different rationalised systems.
G_ Gaussian ab- stat- nen- _U (u) - -ero -ade
M_ Magnetic ab- ab- ab- _I SI - - -
E_ Electric stat stat- stat- _Y - -ade -ade -ade
N_ Nines nen- nen- nen- _R BR -ero -ero -ero
H_ Hansen ab- ? - - - - - -
Given the name of the Gaussian Unit in this form, one can find other units. This is handled by changing the prefix and/or suffix of the GU.
Gaussian GU abampere abamperade statampere
ESU EU statampere statamperade statampere
EMU MU abamoere abamperade abampere
HLU GR abampero abampero statampero
SI sMI ampere ampere ampere
Hansen HU abampere abamperade ampere
UES-MI
The SI has a UES description of metre-kilogram-second-MI=10**7. The 10**7 appears in the definition of the Ampere, in the force of 2/n Newtons. When one replaces n to a more suitable value, eg a power of the base, this is in effect setting MI to some other n, eg MI=120**4 or MI=12**8.
      Typically, MI is set to less than the speed of light, such that c=zn, where z and n are both greater than one. The easy way of handling the electrostatic system is to use c = n/z, and set MI = n/z².
      To fake the transition from emu to MKSA, one should recall that the metric units are derived from the EMU, for which Q² = LM/n. That is, if your system does not make n square, you should have an alternate that does: so in the MKSA, one could easily point to metre-gram-second, which makes 1 C² = 1 m * 1 g / 10^4, ie 1 C = 0.01 √(m g) or metre-tonne-second 1 C² = 1 m * 1 t / 10^10 or 1 C = 0.00001 √(m t).
      The practical electrical units proceeded the cgs units, and we need to look to either the metre-gram-second or milimetre-milligram-second for a basis.
UI (1959) *
A set of Imperial conversion factors introduced around 1960, as a uniform international conversion factors.
      UI foot = 0.3048 metres
      UI pound = 0.45359237 kilogram
UK (1922) *
A set of Imperial conversion factors dating from the NPL measurements of 1922. These served as legal standards until they were displaced in 1963.
      UK foot = 0.91439841/3 metres
      UK pound = 0.453592338 kilogram
By Sears, Jolly and Johnson, the yard measured 0.91439841 metres. The Sears conversion factor used in geodetic surveys is
      39.370 146 983 467:   unknown basis
      39.370 147 000 000:   1 metre = 39.370 147 inches
The pound yielded 0.453592338 kg at the same time.
UL *
The Imperial conversion factors adopted for the fpsc system.
      UL foot = 299792458/983574900 metres
      UL pound = 0.4535923392 kilogram
The light second is fixed to 299792458 metres and 983574900 feet. The imperial factor is chosen because of its factors.
      The pound is chosen because of its factors, and is very close to the UK conversion factor.
uncia *
The uncia is a twelfth measure, a weight applied to the linear system. While both the foot and pound were divided into twelve uncia, the subsequent history is for them to take different paths.
      See inch, ounce
US (1898) *
The Imperial conversion factors used in the US from the Mendenhall Order of 1898 until it was displaced by the UI in 1959.
      US foot = 12/39.37 metres
      US pound = 0.4535924277 kilograms: rounds Broch's pound to 10 decimals.
The different capacity units are discussed under the Imperial system entry.
US decimal *
A system inspired by the approximation that 1000 oz water is nearly a cubic foot. This system got dangerously far along the legal road without being sorted out in precision.
      millier \ 10 cwt \ 100 pound \ 10 oz \ 10 dram
      mile \ 10 furlong \ 10 chain \ 10 perches \ 10 feet \ 10 inch
      bushel = cu ft \ 10 gallon \ 10 pint \ 10 oz
      dollar (oz) \ 10 dime \ 10 cent \ 10 mill [money]
The US oz would be somewhere in the range of 436 to 453 grains, and thus the dollar would be of the order of 5 shillings (a value it had also in WW2).
      The system was never formalised, and by the time the great expansion in the west happened, Gunter's chain had taken seed.
UV (1864) *
The Imperial conversions that applied during the reign of Queen Victoria. The values were legalised in 1867.
      UV foot = 12/39.37079 metres: Kater's 1816 comparison
      UV pound = 7/15.43234874 kilogram: Miller's 1844 value.
The metre of the Archives, yielded 39.37079 inches on Shanksburgh's yard.
      Proffessor Miller determined the kilogram to be 15,432.34874 grains, against the newly constructed pound prototype. The previous standards were lost in the 1834 fire that destroyed the Houses of Parliment.


© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger