## Technical Units

Tables: Home - m2in - kg2oz - gm2gr - Water - Gallon - Gal2in - Inches - Technic - Pi

 ft/sec² m/s² Description 32.087 664 041 995 9.780 320 000 000 gravity at Equator. 32.124 343 832 020 9.791 500 000 000 gravity at Brisbane, 32.142 857 142 857 9.797 142 857 142 ISWS, g = 225/7 ft/s² 32.157 987 147 574 9.801 751 739 381 light in 354 days. 32.165 097 009 932 9.803 921 568 627 ILF, TILF = 1/0.102 m/s² 32.175 000 000 000 9.806 940 000 000 Etu = 1/31.080 031 32.174 045 556 430 9.806 650 000 000 metric gravity = Paris 32.194 028 871 391 9.812 740 000 000 gravity at Potsdam 32.257 217 847 769 9.832 000 000 000 gravity at the poles

## Thermal Units

Specific Heat of Water
J/kg K or iJ/kg Description
4 181.063 395 591 836 ISWS = (99*15/7*0.3048)²
4 183.333 333 333 333 thermochemical
4 186.046 511 627 906 3600/0.86; 1 iWatt-hour \ 860 g-calorie
4 186.800 000 000 000 SI = international steam table
4 186.851 211 072 664 ILF, TILF = 17424/2.04²

## Ratings in English Inches

Tables: Home - m2in - kg2oz - gm2gr - Water - Gallon - Gal2in - Inches - Technic - Pi

The following ratings are in terms of the English Inch. This is a fairly common method of quoting units, as in the case of Petrie and Berriman. Units marked § are from Berriman.

Measures in English Inches
Measures
in BI inches
Description
0.729 Roman digit as 0.729 inches. §
0.76 The greek digit as 0.76 in. 16 of these make a foot of 12.16 in
1 The imperial inch. §
7.07 Chinese Ch'ih, as 5 sqrt(2) in, §
9.0 Chinese ch'ih, §
10.8 U, § At Babylon, Oppert found evidence of a linear standard that is interpreted by Berriman as 10.8 inches.
10.806 This is the same standard U, as found by Oppert. The equation here is a measure from a fairly large distance, whose value is known minutely in terms of the U.
11.604 The length of the Roman foot in Gwilt is 0.967 imperial feet.
11.664 This is the length of the Roman foot as measured by Greaves. This rates the foot as 1944 parts, that 2000 make the English foot.§
11.88 9 Indus inches.§ In the Gobi desert, Stien found a measure of nine indus inches, decimally divided.
11.999 976 The UI feet in US inches. This is commonly given as a conversion ratio between the two systems.
12 The imperial foot
12.087 5 The greek foot, as in Gwilt.
12.15 The greek foot, as 5/6 remens. §
12.16 The geographic foot, 6000 make the nautical mile of 6080 imperial feet.
12.353 This is the rating of the Rhenish foot in imperial feet.
12.396 The cape foot, defined as 1.033 imperial feet. §
12.53 A/2 = 1/pi metre. §
12.6 1.08 Roman feet. §
12.96 Assyrian foot of 8/9 remens, or 10k inches. §
13.2 This foot is known to have proceded the 12 inch prototype. Of this foot, 15 make the rood, 600 the furlong, 4800 the mile, and 14400 the league. the Sumerian foot, = 20 × 0.66 in §
13.22 An alternate rating for the unit at 13.2.
13.75 Royal foot of 2/3 cubit §
14.14 The ch'ih of 10 sqrt(2) in. §
14.58 Remen = 20 digits. §
17.496 Roman cubit = 24 digits = 4/9 metre §
17.68 6/7 royal cubit, =pi/7 metres §
17.71 A / sqrt(2) = cubit of the Nilometer. §
17.84 sqrt(3/2) metre. §
18.0 20 × 0.9 in §
18.225 25 digits = 5/4 remens §
19.44 Assyrian cubit, = 4/3 remens = 15k inches.
19.8 Sumerian cubit = 0.96 poles = 1/10 pole.
20.412 28 digits, a version of the royal cubit §
20.52 27 fingers at 0.76 in §
20.571 428 571 12/7 ft, a value used in Michel for the royal cubit.
20.625 Royal cubit as sqrt(2) remens = pi/6 metres §
20.736 1.728 feet.
21.6 UU §
21.87 Talmudist cubit, = 3/2 remens §
25.025 The value adopted for the Pyramid Cubit in P Smyth.
25.06 Cubit A §
25.2 2.16 Roman feet §
25.25 Palistinian cubit, = sqrt(3) remens. §
32.64 The Megalithic yard, as rated in Thom and North. This yard is divided into 40 inches, and a rod of 2.5 yards is also described. North adds also a HMY of 0.01 MY.
32.727 272 727 3 The Megalithic yard, as rated in Michel. The Megalithic Mile, rated as 5280 MY is by this approximation, 14400 feet.
33.000 000 000 0 This is the Spanish vara, as used in the USA, via Mexico. This yard turns up in India, as Akbar's yard, where it is divided into 25 lesser measures ('inches'). §
36.000 000 000 0 The imperial yard is 36 inches.
39.370 000 000 0 US This rates 1 metre as 39.37 inches. Legal definition in the US 1866 and 1959
39.370 078 740 2 UI This rates the inch as 0.254 metres. The current international definition
39.370 113 184 7 UB Benoit found 1 yard to be 0.914 399 2 m
39.370 147 198 7 UK In 1922, Seers, Jolly and Johnson found the yard to be 0.914 398 41 metres.
39.370 232 589 4 UL That the light second = 299 792 458 metres, = 983 574 900 feet, UL measure.
39.370 270 000 0 In 1882, Rogers found the metre to be 39.370 27 inches.
39.370 431 960 0 UC In 1866, Clarke found the metre to be 1.093 623 11 yards. UK factor 1878
39.370 790 000 0 UV In 1816, Kater found this ratio. The V stands for Victoria. Legal in 1864.

## Ratings in French Inches

The measures of Paris were held in great estime in the premetric Europe. A number of foreign feet appear to be defined in terms of it. The principle multiples occur at 12 (inch), 144 (foot), and 864 (toise).

Measures in French Lines
The gallon
in cu lines
Description
1 Line
12 Inch
131 The Roman foot, as 1/4 Aune. This was remeasured in 1746 as 131.208333.
139.13 The Rhennish foot appears to be defined in terms of the Paris line. This is confirmed in the way that MS uses it.
144 Foot.
147.765 333 333   The foot of the System Usuel, being 1/3 of the metre of 443.296 lines.
439.15 In 1734-5, La Condamine, Godin and Bouguer measured the seconds pendulum at the equator, in Peru. The toise used in this equation becomes known as the Toise de Perou.
440.443 185 293 The seconds pendulum, rated on Newton's value of Paris gravity (4347 lines / s / s).
440.559 7 The seconds pendulum, at Paris, as measured by Lacille and Cassini. (1739).
443.283 788 845 In 1897, Benoit found the toise of perou (72 in) to be 1.949 090 metres
443.295 936 000 In 1789, Mechain and Delambre found the metre to be 0.513 074 toise.
443.295 956 746 The [ICT] gives the toise as legally equal to 1.949 036 5 m
443.295 979 490 The value of the Paris foot in [MS] is 0.324 839 4 metres
443.296 000 000 PR This is the legal ratio of the metre: 1 metre = 443.296 lines Paris measure
443.327 288 868 Newton rated Paris's gravity (9.80665 m/s/s) as 30 ft 2 in 3 5/9 ln
443.387 9 The metre, based on the second's pendulum of Lacille and Cassini.
443.440 000 000 PA The survey of Lacille and Cassini served as an interim value.
443.441 952 Lacille and Cassini measured the meridian degree at 45° as 57027 toise. This is the proportional metre in lines.
524.000 000 000 Until 1746, the Aune was held to be 3ft 7 in 8 ln, Paris Measure.
524.833 333 333 In 1746, the Aune (reputedly 48 in, Roman), rated as 3 ft 7 in 8 ln 10 pt, PR.
528 A common rating is to set 6 Aune to 22 paris feet. This makes the Aune 3ft 8 in.
864 Toise

## Proportional Weight

 Unit Definition Description corn 1/32 dwt (twe: 0:0001 4890) doli 1/12 obol (twe: 0:0001 6760) grain 1/20 drachm (twe: 0:0001 V5) obol 1/2 scruple (twe: 0:0018 90) scruple 1/3 drachm (twe: 0:0037 60) penyweight 1/20 oz (twe: 0:0045) drachm 1/8 oz (twe: 0:00E2 60) sheckel 1/60 mina (twe: 0:01V5) ledd 1/2 oz (twe: 0:0390) ounce 1 oz (twe: 0:0760) mark 8 oz (twe: 0:6000) libra 12 oz (twe: 0:9000) mina 15 oz (twe: 0:E260) pound 16 oz (twe: 1:0000) pund 20 oz (twe: 1:3000) seer 40 oz (twe: 2:6000) lclove 112 lb (twe: 7:0000) gclove 120 oz (twe: 7:6000) lstone 14 lb (twe: 14:0000) gstone 15 lb (twe: 15:0000) pack 20 lb (twe: 20:0000) talent 60 mina (twe: 56:3000) scwt 100 lb (twe: V0:0000) lcwt 112 lb (twe: E2:0000) gcwt 120 lb (twe: 100:0000) ston 20 scwt (twe: 1680:0000) lton 20 lcwt (twe: 1880:0000) gton 20 gcwt (twe: 2000:0000)

# Normal Units

Tables: Home - m2in - kg2oz - gm2gr - Water - Gallon - Gal2in - Inches - Technic - Pi

```
normal     geograph        regular         metric
mite h2        1          1.041666    3.176417       0.980392 = mg
grain h1       0.5        0.520833    0.52940285
carat h1       1.66666                1.677316       1.6339869 = 200mg
scruple h1    10         10.416666   10.5880571      8.1699346 = g
dwt h1        12         12.5        12.7056686
dram h1       30         31.25       31.764176
shilling h1   48                     46.202431
ouncef h1    240        250         254.1133725
----------------------------------------------
ounce          1.875      2.083333    1.9301145     1.7020697  25g
pound         30         33.333333   30.881833     68.0278867  kg
stone        450        500         432.345668
cwt         3600       4000        3458.76534
seam        9000                                  8510.34858  125 kg
ton        72000      80000       69175.3069     68082.7886    t

inch           1          1.05        1.03632        1.02
foot          12         12.6        12.43584       12.24
yard          36         37.8        37.30752       40.8     1 m
pace          60         63          62.17920       61.20
fathom         72         75.6        74.61504       81.6     2 m
perch        180        189         205.19136      204       5 m
chain        720        756         820.76544      816      20 m
furlong     7200       7560        8207.65440     8160     200 m
mile       72000      75600       65661.23520    40800       1 km
league    172800     113400      196883.7056    163200       4 km

sq in          1          1.1025
sq ft        144        158.76
perch      32400      35721       42103.49421
rood     1728000    1428840     1684139.7685     1664640    1000 m2
acre     5184000    5715360     6736559.075

scruple                 0.                           0.0679173 mL
CU INCH       1         1.157625     1.112965338
fl oz         1.875     2.08375      1.9297388       1.6979328
gill          9.375    10.418625     9.64869415
cup          15                     15.4379106      16.917312
pint         37.5      41.675       38.594776
quart        75        83.349       77.1895532      67.917312  L
gallon      300       333.396      308.7582129
CU FOOT    1728      2000.376     1923.2041048
bushel     2400      2666.666     2470.0657
bag        6000      8001.504     7410.197109     6791.7312    hL
tun       72000     80015.04     64787.93828     67917.312     kL
cauldron  86400     96018.048    88922.3653
ACREFT/h3    36        41.6745      48.4807701      39.304    ML

------------------------------------------------------------------------

ft lb/s     18          21          19.202 077     138.88888   kg m/s
hp      10800       10500       10561.14234     10416.66666   75 kg,m/s
poundal      0.9        1.05         0.96010384      6.944444  N
pdl/ft2   1/ 160      1/ 151.2      1/161.07644    1/239.70816  pa
psi         30        30.234315     28.7551288     408.994 0688 kg/cm2
ft pdl      10.8       12.6         11.9396978     283.333333  J
ft pdl/s     0.54       0.63         0.59698489     14.166666  W

------------------------------------------------------------------------

degree   14400         14400          9680             17424
ice     138240                     1393920
ptu/h2      30         33.333      20.7594547         82.380147  kcal

```

## Proportional Length

The Duodecimal System
 E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 2.0736 dfoot drod 1.728 dmill dpoint dline dinch foot rod 1.44 amill apoint tline inch afoot arod 1.2 tmill tpoint line 1 twip point