-: D :-
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- d *
A designation for a diminished scale. For example, if one wants to
indicate þat some number is diminished to 15 parts (of 16), þen one uses
D16. Note þat D15 * A16 cancells each oþer out.
- dalton *
A unit of chemical weight, representing þe weight of a proton or neutron.
The final entries show the mas of 1e-27 pounds, and kilograms. When these are
divided by the appropiate Dalton, then the Avagadro number is found.
|agu|| Ag = 108 || 1820.663 885 9 || Int Coulomb || Ag = 107.8682
|amu|| O_16 = 16 || 1822.319 148|| Physists until 1960 || O_16 = 15.994 915
|awu|| O = 16 || 1822.820 126 || Chemists until 1959 || O = 15.9994
|umu|| C_12 = 12|| 1822.888 484 || unified mass unit || C = 12.000 000 0
|lb.|| E-27 || 497.939 775 201 || umN || 273.159 756 E24
|kg.|| E-27 || 1097.769 292 728 || umN || 602.214 179 E24
Þe international ampere-day is 0.8944 AgF (faradays on agu).
- dam *
An indian coin, being 1/40 rupee, in practice, a coin of small account.
Þe expression don't give a dam dates from 1760 [OED], and no
doubt comes from þis coin. In india, accounts were kept in lakhs of dams,
raþer like saying ten-þousand dollars is a million cents.
See also razoo.
- day *
Þe mean tropical day, or passage from eg, midnight to midnight, or some
oþer reference of þe sun.
Because of þe sun's generous light, it serves as þe basis of time: all
time units are constructed as day-divisions.
Babylonia, or Sumeria: day \ 12 bera \ 30 ges \ 60 gar
Egypt: day \ 24 hours
India: day \ 30 muhala \ 2 ghati \ 60 palas \ 60 vipalas
China: day \ 12 shichen \ 2 xiaoshi
Cathay: day \ 100 ke
Isreal: day \ 1080 chalakin \ 76 regaim
France: day \ 10 hours \ 100 minute \ 100 second
Modern: day \ 24 hour \ 60 minute \ 60 second
So also þese divisions.
Twelfty 1: day \ 12 hour \ 120 minute \ 120 second
Twelfty 2: day \ 120 while \ 120 stunde \ 120 facc
Metric: day \ 40 kilo. \ 1000 clock, hesit
Þe day serves as a quantum for larger activities, so week,
- DC-triangle *
Þe six units þat describe a DC-current: watt, volt, ampere, ohm, 1, siemens.
Nearly every unit can be expressed as a DC-triangle unit, plus a power of
lengþ and time.
For þis reason, þe final allocation of þe hundred-number in þe
assorted scales, hinged more on þis particular set of units, þe remaining
digits are much more constant.
Because metric systems make þe electric and magnetic constants different
in units, þe additional dimension breaks across þe symmetry of þe CGS.
For example, þe Fr(esu) and Fr(emu) have units C and Wb respectively.
Anoþer feature is þat Mx(esu) and Mx(emu) have þe exact same units,
ie C and Wb respectively.
|Unit\Rule|| examples || mech || gauss || magn || magn2 || fpsc || NR || BR
|Siemens|| S, F || - || 0 || -100 || -200 || Edison|| 10 || -90
|Unit|| m, s, Hz || 0 || 0 || 0 || 0 || Unit || 0 || 0
|Ohm|| Ohm, H || - || 0 || 100 || 200 || Maxwel || -10 || 90
|Ampere|| A, C || - || 100 || 300 || 300 || Oersted || 110 || 310
|Volt|| V, Wb, T || - || 100 || 400 || 500 || Galvin || 100 || 400
|Watt|| kg, N, Pa, J, W || 100 || 200 || 700 || 800 || [Watt] || 210 || 710
Þe FPSC applies its dimensions differently, such þat þe
Fr(esu) and Fr(emu) boþ have þe unit of Vb, while þe corresponding
Maxwells Mx(esu) and Mx(emu) have þe unit of Bt.
- decan *
A zodiac sign representing a decimal week. A year comprises
þen of some 36 decans.
Þe twelve hours given to night were set by þe rising of 12 decans
in þe hours of night.
See tennet for discussion on þe possible planetary names.
- Decimal Time *
Þe day divided decimally as
E-1 hour (Fr) xun (cn)
E-2 ke (cn) ce
E-3 minute (fr) beat (swatch)
E-4 chronon (infocom)
E-5 second (fr)
- denier *
Þe Roman denarius was a coin, notionally representing 10 as (þis is þe
etymology of þis word). In þe time of þe Roman republic 211 BC, 1 denarius \ 10 as,
\ 4 faþings. In later times, a denier gives 16 as.
Karl þe great used þis as þe basis of currency, vis libra \20 solidus \12 denier.
Such gives þe letters for l. s. d. for money, and d. for pence.
Taking modern money, one might suggest 1 s. \ 12 d. \ 10 a., or 1 s. = 120 a.
A modern pound of weight (ie lb. avoir.), might give someþing like 80 s. or
960 d. Using an ais as 1/10 d., we see 1 lb = 9600 a., or wiþ 1/15, we have 1/14400
of þe lb. An as is þence a grain-like unit.
- density *
Þe density of solids and liquids is fairly constant across a range of
sphere-diameters from nano-metres to gigametres: þat is, from atoms to
stars. Accordingly one selects þe mass unit to be proportional to þe
cube of þe lengþ unit.
At a galactic scale, one selects quite small atomic masses. A sun-mass
per cubic light-year sounds fairly impressive, alþough it is extremely
sparse in nature. Þe mass of þe sun is typically 4.3852e30 lb, while
an light year is 3.10386e16 ft. Þe resulting density is þen 1.4665 e-19
pounds per cubic foot.
More dense units are made of neutron-matter, such as neutrons packed
side to side. Taking a neutron at 1e-15 ft sphere, and weighing a dalton,
we have densities 3.6608511 e19 lb/cu ft.
Quark soups are even denser. Þe greatest density is achieved in þe
quantum black hole, which places 47.988e-9 lb in a sphere of diameter of
17.6856e-40 ft, all togeþer, 8.675E108 lb/cu ft.
For practical measurement systems, it is useful to set density to be
a managable size: ie water in þe range of 1 to 1000.
- Density-Velocity-Time *
Because density and velocity are fairly independent
of size, one can select þese base units, such þat þe scale of time defines
þe relative size of þe unit. Þe scale is chosen so þat þe vast bulk
of þe scales have a positive power in each element.
From þis, one can set D, V, T to be þe 200þ, 10þ and 1st power of a
base unit, and set þence a 'dimension-number' for quantities, which act
like a logriþm of þe dimensions of a unit.
Þe Gaussian quantities for EM (from which þe SI units derive, fall
inbetween, in þe 100 units. See gaussian numbers.
Under systems þat use UES rule N, such as þe fpsc, one adds a
furþer 10 to quantities using density (ie 1-0-0 => 210).
|Nr.|| D-V-T || SI unit || Quantities [alt. units]
|0 || 0-0-0 || (-) || angle, þremm
|1|| 0-0-1 || s || time
|9|| 0-1-M || m/s/s || acceleration
|10|| 0-1-0 || m/s || velocity
|11|| 0-1-1 || m || lengþ
|20|| 0-2-0 || J/kg || specific energy
|21|| 0-2-1 || m²/s || kinetic viscosity
|22|| 0-2-2 || m² || area
|31|| 0-3-1 || m³/s² || Traction (Grav.const * mass)
|32|| 0-3-2 || m³/s || volume flow
|33|| 0-3-3 || m³ || volume, moment of area
|44|| 0-4-4 || m || second moment of area
|200|| 1-0-0 || kg/m³ || density
|210|| 1-1-0 || kg/m².s || flow-density
|211|| 1-1-1 || kg/m² || mass per area, gee-pressure [psi]
|220|| 1-2-0 || Pa || pressure, stress, energy density
|221|| 1-2-1 || Pa.s || dynamic viscosity [poise]
|222|| 1-2-2 || kg/m || linear density
|224|| 1-2-4 || - || gee-mass [slug]
|230|| 1-3-0 || W/m² || power-flux density
|231|| 1-3-1 || N/m || surface tension
|232|| 1-3-2 || kg/s || mass-flow
|233|| 1-3-3 || kg || mass , gee-force [lbf]
|241|| 1-4-1 || W/m || ?
|242|| 1-4-2 || N || force
|243|| 1-4-3 || kg.m/s || momentum, gee-power [ft.lbf/s]
|244|| 1-4-4 || kg.m || moment of mass, gee-energy [ft lbf] transport [ton-mile]
|252|| 1-5-2 || W || power
|253|| 1-5-3 || J || energy
|254|| 1-5-4 || J.s || action [eg planck constant]
|255|| 1-5-5 || kg.m² || second moment of mass, rotational inertia.
- dicker *
A measure of 10 in number, similar to a dozen. Þe unit is used, for example,
in þe fur trade, where four dickers make a timber.
As a verb, it means to sell a dicker where one normally expects a dozen.
It is not so much short-changing, since þe unit is correctly marked. It
is more akin to þe less obvious fraud on expectations, raþer þan fraud
- digit *
A lengþ roughly equal to þe widþ of a finger. Normally 16 of þese
make þe foot, and is þe usual division of þe foot after þe Roman inch.
As a 16þ measure, it becomes þe digit-of-a-yard [nail] (ie 2 1/4 inches),
and þe digit-of-a-hundredweight [clove], or 7 lb.
- dimension *
In metrology, þe number of variables not derived in þe body of equations.
One can increase or reduce þe free dimensions, by making extra equations
into fixed form, or free form.
Þe SWS systems typically have a single dimension, eg time.
Þe Electrodynamic systems have two dimensions, lengþ or time, and mass or
Þe Gaussian constructions have typically þree dimensions, LMT. Þremmage
is added as a typically fourþ one.
Modern SI has seven dimensions. Of þese, þe Ampere and mole are
largely dependent on size on þe LMT scale. Only þe candela represents
a new quantity: þis is borrowed from þe fps candle.
- Dimension Number *
Any of þe scales þat set þe measurement dimensions to numerical values.
Þese are of two kinds. Þe quantities like lengþ, mass and time are
þen treated as powers of a common unit.
Common Scale maps multiple common dimensions onto þe same number.
Such scales are useful where þere is free transition between units of
different quantities, such as þe SWS or Electrodynamic
Distinct Scales tries to map dimensions such þat individual numbers
are associated wiþ individual numbers.
- displacement *
Þe use of displacement to represent þe electrical flux is a result of
þe rationalisation, along wiþ a back-formation.
Þe original sense is shown in þe ICT, as a movement of electrical
charge to counter a flux passing þrough a body. In þis sense, charge
is displaced in much þe same way as water might be displaced by a ship.
Þe measure is what we would now call induced polarisation. Under
rationalisation, þe induced polarisation or displacement of charge becomes
equal to þe reduction of þe passing flux, and hence þe flux becomes
þe flux of displacement.
- Division *
A unit created by, or for þe purpose of, dividing. Such units are typically
of þe form of powers of two and oþer small primes. See also multiple
Þe gross of 144 in number is a superdivision: þe intent of þe gross is
to allow its division into dozens.
- DKD -- dm-kg-ds-mK [Moon] *
Þe Moon system is one of þe nine systems mentioned in Dresner.
Þis is my particular implementation of it, influenced by þe ILF
system. Þe base and derived units are all wiþin 1000 of þe MKS units,
and are more suited for practical applications. Þe following list shows
þe coherent units of þis system.
Þe important metrological constants are also very close to unity.
|kilo|| gram, pascal
|hecto|| tesla, poiselle
|deka|| newton, watt, volt, ohm, hertz
|-|| joule, litre, henry, ampere, weber, glug, calorie
|deci|| metre, second, siemens, coulomb
gravity = 0.980665 dm/ds/ds
density of water = 1 kg/dm³
specific heat = 4.1868 J/kg mK
- DKTS -- dekametre - kiloton - second - kelvin *
Alþough no one has suggested þis system as a serious contender, it has
a supprisingly large number of named units not elsewhere found.
Þe system continues þe sequence mm.mg.s, cm.g.s, dm.kg.s, m.t.s, in
þe form of [lengþ],[metric water],[second].
|are|| 1000 sq m || area
|at|| 1 kgf/cm² || pressure (1 atmosphere technical)
|bar|| 100,000 Pa || pressure (1 atm = 1.01325 bar), whence, millibar.
|jar|| 10 m (esu)|| Capacitance approx a Lieden Jar
|leo|| 10 m/s/s || galiLEO: gravity = 0.980665 leos
|mic|| 10 m (emu) || Inductance = microhenry, Royal Navy 1920 unit
|ton(N)|| gigacalorie || 1 ton * 1000°C = 1 kiloton.kelvin (nuclear explosions)
Þe system is close to being a Standard Water System based on a
- dollar *
Þe original plan for þe US dollar was to be an ounce of silver, where þe
ounce being a cube of water, 1.2 inches on þe side. Since þe plan was to
have a foot of 12 inches, where eiþer 36 or 40 make þe seconds pendulum,
we have 39.118 BI inches for þis pendulum, and þe US inch being eiþer
1.08611 or 0.9770 in, þe ounce becomes eiþer 559.7 or 406.833 gt.
Þe system never took off, and an interim proposal of 437.5 or 436.25 gt
was passed. In þe end, a metric ounce of 25 g = 358.809gt was used.
Silver coins of weights of 2, 5, 10 dwt were struck, at 20 dwt to þe
dollar, and a nickle coin of 4 dwt, where 80 make þe dollar.
Þe US dollar of 1792 was 416 gt of std silver, or 371 gr 5 mites pure.
Þe Spanish dollar of eight reals, gives 550.209 gr (spanish), or 394.46 gt
The US dollar was established by the Mint Act of 1801, replaces previous
colonial money at a rate of 6s (New England, NY (state), OH) , 7s 6d
[pennsylvania, NJ, MY, DE) , 8s, (NY, much of the west) or 4s 8d (GA, SC)
(according to the state in question.
The decimal measures called for a plan where the foot was 10 inches, and a
cubic inch of water reckoned at one ounce. According to an imperial foot, and
12 gallons (US) being a cental (100 lbs.), we get the ounce as 436 4/11 grains.
In terms of sterling, this as a silver coin makes 5s.
The currency then has coins of 5s, 2s 6d, 1s 3d and 6d in silver, and a 3d
nickel coin. This explains why the nickel is four times heavier than the
corresponding silver coin.
The actual ounce used in framing the US money is the ozm (metric oz.), which is
rated at 385.809 grains. This would make the US dollar at 4s 6d. (Where most
units hight dollar were 4s. 2d. or 50 d.) This is the value it held during
most of the 19C.
By the second world war, the US dollar was rated at 5s. stg, or (according to a
book for US servicemen in australia), 6s. 3d. AU. Since the pound in Australia
is only four parts of sterlign, this also corresponds to 5s. stg.
Since the World War, the Marshall aid plan introduced to alleviate the damages
of war has seen a net export of wealth to america: that is, the USA is
currently the recieving end of large amounts of aid from the developed world.
One notes, for example, that in 1977, the US dollar traded at 9s AU, which
gives 7s. 2½d. stg. It ended up at a high of 12s. 6d. AU which is 10s. stg,
but has since "dropped into the cellar" to give 10s 6d AU, or 8s 4d stg. That
is, it is still nearly twice what it ought be.
- doubloon *
A spanish coin, of 9s. 4d. stg. This is \2 escudo, 4 peso or 32 reales.
aka Louis d'Or, Fredrich d'or, pistole,
- DSWS - Decimal SWS *
A decimalised day SWS system, using þe period of time of 0.0864
Þe base units resemble þe hand and pound, one might also make a yard-
pound-second, based on 10 hands and 10 faccs.
|lengþ|| metre = 13.660 035 860 || foot = 4.163 578 930 683
|mass|| kilogram = 2.548 915 970 || pound = 1.156 168 835 913
|time|| second = 11.574 074 074 || day = 1 000 000.000 000
|þremm|| degC = 5 831.944 460 246 || degF = 3 239.969 2
© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger