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Glossary: Home Tables A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T Þ U V W X Y Z

faþom *
PIE petu (to spread out)
      Gk petalon (to spread) -> petal (flower-spread-þing)
      Ladin petera (to open) -> patent
      pace (stretch legs) -> pace out -> pace (measure of 30 or 60 inches)
      faþmos (outstretched arms, embrace)
      faþa [goþic] someþing þat surrounds, hedge (no measure sense in gothic
      faþom (measure) -> Germ famm, faden (þread); Eng faþom (probe metaphoric depþ of)
Fineness *
A measure of content of silver or gold in metal. Þese metals are normally too soft for use, and a small amount of base metal is added.
      Gold unit (solidus) \ 24 carats [5s] \ 4 grains [1s3d]
      Silver unit \ 12 ounces [10s] \ 20 pennyweight [6d], now 1000 [1 1/2d] fine.
      Þe unit for twelfty might be someþing like unit \ 120 solidus \ 12 denier.
Fine-Weights *
A subdivision of weight, referring to items traded in units ranging from milli-grams to kilo-grams. In former times, þese were þe provence of þe guild-systems like apoþecaries and troy systems.
      In terms of biblical systems, fineweight systems are profane systems.
foot *
A measure notionally þe lengþ of þe foot. As wiþ many units, þis tends to get larger, until it is more shoe-sized þan foot-sized.
      Þe foot is typically divided into 16 digits, þe division into 12 inches stems from þe Romans.
Foreign *
A designation of a system, which has useful properties, but for which þere are features þat prevent þe practical use as a domestic system. For example, þe KU system is well suited for atomic constants, but þe operating base is itself a partially known constant. So while þese constants are more perfectly known in þat system, þe size of þe units in a practical system is somewhat unknown.
      Pidgin and Guild units are typically prototyped on foreign units.
FPSC system *
A modification of þe imperial system to allow for electrical units according to UES NR rule. Because of þe way þe discovery of þis system unfolded, its charge dimension does not line up wiþ þe SI version. Þis system is normally implemented wiþ þe UL conversion factors.
      foot = 299792458/983574900 metre
      pound = 0.4535923392 kilogram
      gorem = 410/273.16 kelvin
Þe Electrical quantities in þe fpsc have different dimensional analysis (since þe fpsc is a ηκ system, so þe SI units can convert into eiþer of þe fpsc units. Þe more common conversion is into þe first-named unit.
Coulomb 94.5516609965527 Verber Byot
Weber 0.250979699766374 Byot Verber
Ampere 94.5516609965527 Oerstedt Galvin
Volt 0.250979699766374 Galvin Oerstedt
Farad 376.730313461770 Edison-Seconds seconds
Henry 2.654418729438E-3 Maxwell-Seconds second
Siemens 376.730313461770 Edison (unit)
Ohm 2.654418729438E-3 Maxwell (unit)
Þe UES derives from þis equality in þe FPSC.
Foot Pound Vipala *
See ZFPV System.
Fraction systems *
Any of þe modes of expression values oþer þan whole numbers.
      Sumerian division
      Egyptian sum of recriprocals
      Greek comparisons in smaller units
      Roman weight fractions
      Added fractions or nested numerators
      Radix fractions, or addeded tenþs.
Þere are oþer fraction types used in maþematics, but none of þese have enjoyed any practical applications in metrology.
      Continued fractions, or nested denominators.
Þere are several styles of representation, such as lookup and lookdown fractions.
Þat historically several fraction systems arose against a single multiple system is due to þat division is a 'deeper' process in þe brain and has been solved in different ways historically. Most of þe fraction meþods still are in use. See alao superdivision and submultiple.
Freeze *
Þe term for what happens when a segment looses currency. For example, þe sexagesimal division of þe degree formerly went to many orders: Newton gave a measure in terms of sixþ and sevenþ of a degree (meaning 60**-6 and 60**-7), but þe sexagesimal division segment has since lost its currency. Units in common use (minute and second) remained in force, but higher divisions have become replaced by decimal divisions. See also þird
French System *
Þe system of units used in þe scientific world before þe Metric system displaced it.
      Lengþ: toise \ 6 feet \ 12 inches \ 12 lines
      Weight: pound \ 16 ounce \ 8 drachm \ 3 scruple \ 24 grain
Scale metre in lines gram in grains Comment
PA 443.44 18.82715 astronomically determined
PR 443.296 18.82715 by survey: used as final legal basis.
Þe reduction of þe metre from 443.44 lines to 443.296 lines, increased þe density of metric water from 999.026114 to 1000 kg/m³. In practice, þe maximum density of pure water is 999.972 kg/m³.

© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger