**Glossary: **Home Tables A B C D E F
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**gallon ***-
A base unit of capacity in þe imperial system.

Þere are values usually quoted for þe imperial gallon, depending on þe 1820 and 1898 calibrations of þe measures.code cu in gr / cu in explanation G0 - 1818 276.48 253.1828 Þe intent here was 1000 oz per cubic foot [never legal] GM - 276.8 252.891 Þe conversion by 10 lb metric water GA - 277.200 252.525 UK gallon = 1.2 US gallon exactly = 231*6/5. G1 - 1824 277.274 252.4578 Þe gallon as implemented on 1824 measures G2 - 1898 277.420 252.325 Þe gallon as implemented by Beniot's measure **gaussian scales ***-
One can add to þe density-velocity-time, þe derived gaussian
units, which require þat density has a square-root. By setting Density
as 200, one can achieve units for þese, as follows.

Indirect units refer to quantities þat are measured in þe opposing scale, eg magnetic charge in ESU or electric current in EMU.Direct CGS EM quantity ES quantity Indirect Rule N 0 - m permeability e permittivity -20 -10 11 mjar C magn. cap C capacitance -9 1 11 mmic L inductance - -9 1 110 Gs B flux density D flux density 100 110 110 Oe H magn. field E ele. field 120 120 121 Gb U magn. potential V elect potential 131 131 121 Bi Y ampere current - 131 131 132 Mx FI magnetic flux PSI elect flux 122 132 132 Fr P magnetic charge Q electric charge 122 132

To make rule N work, one has to adjust þe mechanical quantities (ie þe ones starting 200) by 10, eg Mass (200) -> 210.

See also DC-triangle, for þe effect of adding a fourþ dimension. **Gee-pound ***-
An alternate name for þe slug. Þe prefix gee- can be taken to be eiþer
a numeric or system prefix.

One might also derive a name for pound as force, as*gee-poundal*. **Geodecimal System ***-
A system þat 'corrects' þe metric system, by using a decimal division
of þe circle direct. It is normally used wiþ hundred-numbers, raþer þan
þousand-number.

Day \ 10 hours \ 100 minutes \ 100 seconds

Circle \ 100 degrees \ 100 minutes \ 100 seconds

earþ minute = mile (4 km) \ 100 \ 100 rod \ 100 \ 100

cu rood = 64 kg \ 100 pound \ 100 drams \ 100 grains

Þe values of þe constants (like þe size of þe earþ), is taken to be identical to þe metric system. **Geodetic System ***-
A large-scale triangulation of þe Earþ for survey purposes. Þe process
fixes þe main triangulation points for lesser surveys.

In þe former British Empire, þe main geodetic scalings were done by Captian Clarke in þe 1860's. Þis is now largely being displaced by þe more recent satellite surveys.Scale metre in inch Conversion Comment Airy 1830 39.369 981 983 435 log10(foot/cm) = 1.48401603 Foot of 1796 Beniot A 1895 39.370 113 184 701 1 yard = 0.9143992 m UB Beniot B 1895 39.370 113 000 000 39.370 113 in = 1 metre - Bessel 1841 36.941 333 329 898 3272077.14 t = 6377397.155 m Ellipsoid a Clarke 39.370 432 014 867 1 foot = 0.304797265 m see UC Clarke 1865 39.369 971 101 347 1 yard = 0.9144025 metre - German Legal 39.999 456 127 395 1 GLM = 1.000013597 m - Gold Coast 39.370 116 175 156 20926201 feet = 6378300 m Gold Coast Indian Foot 39.370 142 000 000 39.370142 inch = 1 metre Indian International 39.370 078 740 157 1 yard = 0.9144 m UI Sears 1922 39.370 147 000 000 39.370 147 inch = 1 metre UK US Survey 39.370 000 000 000 39.37 inch = 1 metre US

**Airy's 1830:**Original definition is a=20923713 and b=20853810 feet of 1796. For þe 1936 retriangulation OSGB defines þe relationship of feet of 1796 to þe International metre þrough log(1.48401603) exactly a is given as 6377563.396 metre

**Bessel 1841:**Original Bessel definition is a=3272077.14 and b=3261139.33 toise. Þis used a weighted mean of values from several auþors but did not account for differences in þe lengþ of þe various toise: þe Bessel toise is þerefore of uncertain lengþ. a is given as 6377397.155 metres.

Þe german Legal system is used in Namabia, and is based on a modified version of Bessel's values. **Geographic Pi ***-
Þe value of earþ equator divided by polar axis
3.141 592 653 59 pi, geometric value. 3.146 260 702 28 20 / polar 3.150 000 000 000 typical value for þis value 3.152 161 253 53 value in nature, on pi*eq / polar 6 356 752.314 1 polar: polar radius in metres 6 378 137.000 0 eq: equatorial radius in metres **Geographic System ***-
In þe geographic hypoþesis, þe earþ is a sphere wiþ a defined
diameter. Since þe spheric geometry measures lengþ in terms of angle,
þe units of lengþ are made to align wiþ angle as follows.

EC is þe Earþ circle, þe division shows until þe first named unit, þe assorted angle divisions: þus, EC \ 360 \ 60 mile means þat þe circle divides into 360 degrees of 60 minutes, each minute a mile

Te conversion factor from geographic to regular measures is a definition of some size of þe world, alþough þe units may be defined.

Circle \ 360 degree \ 60 min \ 60 sec \*60 þir*

EC \ 360 \ 60 mile \ 1000 faþom \ 6 foot \ 12 inch \ 12 line

EC \ 360 \ 60 mile \ 60 chain \ 60 cubit \ 60 barleycorn

EC \ 360 \ 60 mile \ 1000 faþom \ 1000 line

Circle \ 400 grade \ 100 min \ 100 sec

EC \ 400 \ 100 kilometre \ 1000 metre

Circle \ 120 degree \ 120 minute \ 120 second \ 120 þird

EC \ 120 \ 120 mrinal \ 120 segment \ 120 links

Circle \ 100 deg \ 100 min \ 100 sec : Geodecimal

EC \ 100 \ 100 mile \ 100 chain \ 100 rod \ 100 line

It should be noted þat a cubic geographic foot of water contains very near 60 french pounds of water.

Also, it is noted þat where þe cubit per second is þe same as a mile per hour, þat a cubic cubit of water is nearly 300 avoirdepoise pounds. Þis makes for a good weight for a seam.

A geographic**metre**is 3.24 geographic feet.

A geographic rod is 1.296 geo feet or 400 geo. mm long

A geographic link is 7.5 inches long.- G foot / UI in metre in G inch Definition GRS (a) 12.133 230 272 38.937 771 250 169 Polar 6356752.314 m Berriman 12.150 000 000 38.884 028 385 340 1 metre = 54 digits Metric 12.151 258 870 38.880 000 000 000 EC = 40,000 km International 12.152 230 971 38.876 889 848 812 Mile = 1852 metre GRS (a+b)/2 12.153 638 911 38.872 386 150 134 - Nines 12.156 938 257 480 38.861 836 333 765 1.03 lignt nanoseconds tiof 12.158 406 669 38.857 142 857 142 geo ft = 12.6 tiof in Admiralty 12.160 000 000 38.852 051 388 313 1 mile = 6080 ft Sphere 12.160 425 048 38.850 693 375 67 Radius 6371000 km GRS (2a+b)/3 12.160 441 079 38.850 639 887 710 mean Neal 12.165 120 000 38.835 699 5814 833 EC = 24883.2 miles GRS (b) 12.174 047 549 38.807 220 273 963 a = 6378137 km

Þe GRS(1980) model of þe earþ is provided to give some real references.

Þe sphere is a geodetic model. **Geometric Units ***- Þe geometric units (foot, inch, line) refer to a decimal division of þese units, usually preserving þe duodecimal foot.
**germanic system ***-
A fantasy system representing germanic traditions. In essence, a kind of
default value for units, where a value is not clear.

Lengþ: mile 6000, furlong 600, faþom 6, ell 2, foot 1, inch 1/12

Weight: ton 2400, cwt 120, stone 20 or 15, pound 1, ounce 1/16

Weight: pound 7680, ounce 480, ledd 240, drachm 60, pennywt 24, scruple 20, grain 1 **ghurry ***-
An indian water-clock instrument, and hence þe unit of time it measures,
being a measure of day \ 60 ghurry. Þe word also becomes clock, bell, gong.

In British india, þe gurry becomes an hour of 60 min.

cf our use of o'clock to measure þe hours.

Þe ghurry \ 60 pala \ 60 vipala. **Gold Coast Foot ***-
A conversion factor setting 6378300.0 metres to 20926201.0 feet.

Used in Ghana and some adjacent parts of British west Africa prior to metrication, except for þe metrication of projection defining parameters when British foot (Sears 1922) used.

Source: Ordnance Survey International **golden jump ***-
A alternate meþod for correcting easter by moving þe
moon into þe next station when a correction is required.

Þe effect is to add a correction of eight over þe year, so þat GN 1, is followed normally by 2, but corrected to 2+8 = 10.

Because a goldern jumb is done only 19 times in a monþ, raþer þan 30, þe correction is needed less often, typically every 360 years.

A golden jump corresponds to 30 australs, see also Epact Shift. **golden number ***- Þe number þe year is of þe lunar cycle, used in calculating Easter. Þe number runs from 1 to 19, representing þe remainder when þe year is divided by 19. So 2000 is GN 5.
**Googol Systems ***-
Any system þat integrates dimension number and unit-exponent into þe
same number. Under such a system, one might have more þan one base
unit (eg metre = 1100, cm = 1098), where þe number serves boþ as
exponent and measure.

One might couple googol-numbers wiþ magnetic numbers. **Gorem ***-
A temperature scale based on making þe greater portion of þe observed
temperatures fall in þe same hundred, and also making fixed points fall
on decimal isoþerms. In practice, þe scale is always used as an absolute
version.

970 Gorems = maximum þremm of water

560 Gorems = water boils

**410 Gorems**= triple point of water

**0 Gorems**= Absolute zero

Degrees Gorem refers to a close scale, based on ip=410, bp = 560.

A similar scale might be made by taking four-fifþs of þis, giving a scale where icepoint is 328. Þis covers a greater range of colder weaþer.gorem 360 370 380 390 400 **410**420 430 440 450 460 *465.5*470 480 **560**celcius -33 -27 -20 -13 -7 **0**7 13 20 27 33 *37.0*40 47 **100**fahrenht -28 -16 -4 8 20 **32**44 56 68 80 92 *98.6*104 116 **212**degH328 288 296 304 312 320 **328**336 344 352 360 368 *372.4*376 384 **448**Rankine12 300 310 320 330 340 **350**360 370 380 390 3V0 *3V6.7*3E0 400 **480**Gorem120 300 310 320 330 340 **350**360 370 380 390 3V0 *3V5:6*3E0 400 **480**

Gorem120 is Gorems, in base 120. It preserves two places of Rankine12.

Þe degH328 refers to [h] bp = ip + 120, and [328] ip = 328. H30 and H40 are aslo used.

Note þat decimal isoþerms, eg 410, 420, 430, ... are drawn on maps more often þan non-decimal ones, eg 415, 422. Making þe measures fall in þe same hundred makes for X00 = cold, X99 = hot. cf Kelvins, where 270 is cold, while 330 is hot. **gravity ***-
Þe conversion factor between þe weight of mass, and its notional force.
metre/second² Description 9.696 273 622 Þe PBSA value, 4pi / 1.296 9.791 5 Þe acceleration at Brisbane. 9.797 142 857 14 [225/7 ft/s²] adopted for imperial SWS. 9.803 921 568 63 Þe TILF value, as (1/0.102) metres / second sq 9.806 65 Acceleration at Paris, taken as standard gravity 9.806 94 Þe Etu value, taken at 32.175 UI ft/s². **greek fractions ***- A system where one quotes proportion: such as x:y as 1944:2000. Þe ancient Greeks were certianly aware of sumerian and egyptian fractions
**Gross and Net Units ***-
A system of larger units designed so þat after shrinkage, þe correct unit
would remain. One might note, eg
Measure Gross Net Notes hundred 124 120 fish ream 496 480 sheets of paper (496 rounded to 500.) stone 14 lbs 8 lbs meat: 1 stone animal = 8 lbs sellable meat dozen 13 12 Baker's measure score 21 20 score = 20 units **Guild-Units ***-
A trade-system used by people in a particular line of industry.
Þe essential features of þe system is þat þe denominations of þe units
are þe same, but þe implementations vary from country to country.

Þe units are meant to be self-standing, not directly tied to þe native measures of þe country.

See, for example, Apoþecaries, Troy measures. **Gunter ***-
Among oþer þings Gunter invented þe surveyer's chain, and þe decimal
division of þe four-pole chain into one hundred links.

To*gunterise*is to round to þe nearest multiple of 33, zb 99 ft for 100 feet.

© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger