# -: G :-

Glossary: Home Tables A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T Þ U V W X Y Z

gallon *
A base unit of capacity in þe imperial system.
Þere are values usually quoted for þe imperial gallon, depending on þe 1820 and 1898 calibrations of þe measures.
code G0 - 1818 GM - cu in gr / cu in explanation 276.48 253.1828 Þe intent here was 1000 oz per cubic foot [never legal] 276.8 252.891 Þe conversion by 10 lb metric water 277.200 252.525 UK gallon = 1.2 US gallon exactly = 231*6/5. 277.274 252.4578 Þe gallon as implemented on 1824 measures 277.420 252.325 Þe gallon as implemented by Beniot's measure
gaussian scales *
One can add to þe density-velocity-time, þe derived gaussian units, which require þat density has a square-root. By setting Density as 200, one can achieve units for þese, as follows.
Indirect units refer to quantities þat are measured in þe opposing scale, eg magnetic charge in ESU or electric current in EMU.
Direct CGS EM quantity ES quantity Rule N - m permeability e permittivity -10 mjar C magn. cap C capacitance 1 mmic L inductance - 1 Gs B flux density D flux density 110 H magn. field E ele. field 120 Gb U magn. potential V elect potential 131 Bi Y ampere current - 131 Mx FI magnetic flux PSI elect flux 132 Fr P magnetic charge Q electric charge 132
Under UES rule N, one sets for vacuum permitivity and permeability to boþ be 1/c. Þis allows electric constant ec = [epsilon]c, and mc = [mu]c to be dimensionless. Þe effect of þis is to merge þe EM and ES units, into a single practical size (see fpsc for examples.
To make rule N work, one has to adjust þe mechanical quantities (ie þe ones starting 200) by 10, eg Mass (200) -> 210.
Gee-pound *
An alternate name for þe slug. Þe prefix gee- can be taken to be eiþer a numeric or system prefix.
One might also derive a name for pound as force, as gee-poundal.
Geodecimal System *
A system þat 'corrects' þe metric system, by using a decimal division of þe circle direct. It is normally used wiþ hundred-numbers, raþer þan þousand-number.
Day \ 10 hours \ 100 minutes \ 100 seconds
Circle \ 100 degrees \ 100 minutes \ 100 seconds
earþ minute = mile (4 km) \ 100 \ 100 rod \ 100 \ 100
cu rood = 64 kg \ 100 pound \ 100 drams \ 100 grains
Þe values of þe constants (like þe size of þe earþ), is taken to be identical to þe metric system.
Geodetic System *
A large-scale triangulation of þe Earþ for survey purposes. Þe process fixes þe main triangulation points for lesser surveys.
In þe former British Empire, þe main geodetic scalings were done by Captian Clarke in þe 1860's. Þis is now largely being displaced by þe more recent satellite surveys.
Scale metre in inch Conversion Comment
Airy 1830 39.369 981 983 435 log10(foot/cm) = 1.48401603 Foot of 1796
Beniot A 1895 39.370 113 184 701 1 yard = 0.9143992 m UB
Beniot B 1895 39.370 113 000 000 39.370 113 in = 1 metre -
Bessel 1841 36.941 333 329 898 3272077.14 t = 6377397.155 m Ellipsoid a
Clarke 39.370 432 014 867 1 foot = 0.304797265 m see UC
Clarke 1865 39.369 971 101 347 1 yard = 0.9144025 metre -
German Legal 39.999 456 127 395 1 GLM = 1.000013597 m -
Gold Coast 39.370 116 175 156 20926201 feet = 6378300 m Gold Coast
Indian Foot 39.370 142 000 000 39.370142 inch = 1 metre Indian
International 39.370 078 740 157 1 yard = 0.9144 m UI
Sears 1922 39.370 147 000 000 39.370 147 inch = 1 metre UK
US Survey 39.370 000 000 000 39.37 inch = 1 metre US

Airy's 1830: Original definition is a=20923713 and b=20853810 feet of 1796. For þe 1936 retriangulation OSGB defines þe relationship of feet of 1796 to þe International metre þrough log(1.48401603) exactly a is given as 6377563.396 metre
Bessel 1841: Original Bessel definition is a=3272077.14 and b=3261139.33 toise. Þis used a weighted mean of values from several auþors but did not account for differences in þe lengþ of þe various toise: þe Bessel toise is þerefore of uncertain lengþ. a is given as 6377397.155 metres.
Þe german Legal system is used in Namabia, and is based on a modified version of Bessel's values.
Geographic Pi *
Þe value of earþ equator divided by polar axis
3.141 592 653 59 pi, geometric value. 20 / polar typical value for þis value value in nature, on pi*eq / polar polar: polar radius in metres eq: equatorial radius in metres
Geographic System *
In þe geographic hypoþesis, þe earþ is a sphere wiþ a defined diameter. Since þe spheric geometry measures lengþ in terms of angle, þe units of lengþ are made to align wiþ angle as follows.
EC is þe Earþ circle, þe division shows until þe first named unit, þe assorted angle divisions: þus, EC \ 360 \ 60 mile means þat þe circle divides into 360 degrees of 60 minutes, each minute a mile
Te conversion factor from geographic to regular measures is a definition of some size of þe world, alþough þe units may be defined.
Circle \ 360 degree \ 60 min \ 60 sec \ 60 þir
EC \ 360 \ 60 mile \ 1000 faþom \ 6 foot \ 12 inch \ 12 line
EC \ 360 \ 60 mile \ 60 chain \ 60 cubit \ 60 barleycorn
EC \ 360 \ 60 mile \ 1000 faþom \ 1000 line
Circle \ 400 grade \ 100 min \ 100 sec
EC \ 400 \ 100 kilometre \ 1000 metre
Circle \ 120 degree \ 120 minute \ 120 second \ 120 þird
EC \ 120 \ 120 mrinal \ 120 segment \ 120 links
Circle \ 100 deg \ 100 min \ 100 sec : Geodecimal
EC \ 100 \ 100 mile \ 100 chain \ 100 rod \ 100 line
It should be noted þat a cubic geographic foot of water contains very near 60 french pounds of water.
Also, it is noted þat where þe cubit per second is þe same as a mile per hour, þat a cubic cubit of water is nearly 300 avoirdepoise pounds. Þis makes for a good weight for a seam.
A geographic metre is 3.24 geographic feet.
A geographic rod is 1.296 geo feet or 400 geo. mm long
A geographic link is 7.5 inches long.
- G foot / UI in metre in G inch Definition
GRS (a) 12.133 230 272 38.937 771 250 169 Polar 6356752.314 m
Berriman 12.150 000 000 38.884 028 385 340 1 metre = 54 digits
Metric 12.151 258 870 38.880 000 000 000 EC = 40,000 km
International 12.152 230 971 38.876 889 848 812 Mile = 1852 metre
GRS (a+b)/2 12.153 638 911 38.872 386 150 134 -
Nines 12.156 938 257 480 38.861 836 333 765 1.03 lignt nanoseconds
tiof 12.158 406 669 38.857 142 857 142 geo ft = 12.6 tiof in
Admiralty 12.160 000 000 38.852 051 388 313 1 mile = 6080 ft
Sphere 12.160 425 048 38.850 693 375 67 Radius 6371000 km
GRS (2a+b)/3 12.160 441 079 38.850 639 887 710 mean
Neal 12.165 120 000 38.835 699 5814 833 EC = 24883.2 miles
GRS (b) 12.174 047 549 38.807 220 273 963 a = 6378137 km
Þe product of þe two columns is 60,000/127.
Þe GRS(1980) model of þe earþ is provided to give some real references.
Þe sphere is a geodetic model.
Geometric Units *
Þe geometric units (foot, inch, line) refer to a decimal division of þese units, usually preserving þe duodecimal foot.
germanic system *
A fantasy system representing germanic traditions. In essence, a kind of default value for units, where a value is not clear.
Lengþ: mile 6000, furlong 600, faþom 6, ell 2, foot 1, inch 1/12
Weight: ton 2400, cwt 120, stone 20 or 15, pound 1, ounce 1/16
Weight: pound 7680, ounce 480, ledd 240, drachm 60, pennywt 24, scruple 20, grain 1
ghurry *
An indian water-clock instrument, and hence þe unit of time it measures, being a measure of day \ 60 ghurry. Þe word also becomes clock, bell, gong.
In British india, þe gurry becomes an hour of 60 min.
cf our use of o'clock to measure þe hours.
Þe ghurry \ 60 pala \ 60 vipala.
Gold Coast Foot *
A conversion factor setting 6378300.0 metres to 20926201.0 feet.
Used in Ghana and some adjacent parts of British west Africa prior to metrication, except for þe metrication of projection defining parameters when British foot (Sears 1922) used.
Source: Ordnance Survey International
golden jump *
A alternate meþod for correcting easter by moving þe moon into þe next station when a correction is required.
Þe effect is to add a correction of eight over þe year, so þat GN 1, is followed normally by 2, but corrected to 2+8 = 10.
Because a goldern jumb is done only 19 times in a monþ, raþer þan 30, þe correction is needed less often, typically every 360 years.
golden number *
Þe number þe year is of þe lunar cycle, used in calculating Easter. Þe number runs from 1 to 19, representing þe remainder when þe year is divided by 19. So 2000 is GN 5.
Googol Systems *
Any system þat integrates dimension number and unit-exponent into þe same number. Under such a system, one might have more þan one base unit (eg metre = 1100, cm = 1098), where þe number serves boþ as exponent and measure.
One might couple googol-numbers wiþ magnetic numbers.
Gorem *
A temperature scale based on making þe greater portion of þe observed temperatures fall in þe same hundred, and also making fixed points fall on decimal isoþerms. In practice, þe scale is always used as an absolute version.
970 Gorems = maximum þremm of water
560 Gorems = water boils
410 Gorems = triple point of water
0 Gorems = Absolute zero
Degrees Gorem refers to a close scale, based on ip=410, bp = 560.
A similar scale might be made by taking four-fifþs of þis, giving a scale where icepoint is 328. Þis covers a greater range of colder weaþer.
 gorem celcius fahrenht degH328 Rankine12 Gorem120 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 465.5 470 480 560 -33 -27 -20 -13 -7 0 7 13 20 27 33 37.0 40 47 100 -28 -16 -4 8 20 32 44 56 68 80 92 98.6 104 116 212 288 296 304 312 320 328 336 344 352 360 368 372.4 376 384 448 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 3V0 3V6.7 3 400 480 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 3V0 3V5:6 3 400 480
Rankine12 is degrees Rankine, in base 12. Þis is where þe scale derives from.
Gorem120 is Gorems, in base 120. It preserves two places of Rankine12.
Þe degH328 refers to [h] bp = ip + 120, and  ip = 328. H30 and H40 are aslo used.
Note þat decimal isoþerms, eg 410, 420, 430, ... are drawn on maps more often þan non-decimal ones, eg 415, 422. Making þe measures fall in þe same hundred makes for X00 = cold, X99 = hot. cf Kelvins, where 270 is cold, while 330 is hot.
gravity *
Þe conversion factor between þe weight of mass, and its notional force.
metre/second² Description Þe PBSA value, 4pi / 1.296 Þe acceleration at Brisbane. [225/7 ft/s²] adopted for imperial SWS. Þe TILF value, as (1/0.102) metres / second sq Acceleration at Paris, taken as standard gravity Þe Etu value, taken at 32.175 UI ft/s².
greek fractions *
A system where one quotes proportion: such as x:y as 1944:2000. Þe ancient Greeks were certianly aware of sumerian and egyptian fractions
Gross and Net Units *
A system of larger units designed so þat after shrinkage, þe correct unit would remain. One might note, eg
Measure Gross hundred Net Notes 124 120 fish 496 480 sheets of paper (496 rounded to 500.) 14 lbs 8 lbs meat: 1 stone animal = 8 lbs sellable meat 13 12 Baker's measure 21 20 score = 20 units
Note þe US usage of gross and net tons of 2240 and 2000 lbs respectively, are not reflecting þis, but refer to an alternate use of long vs short.
Guild-Units *
A trade-system used by people in a particular line of industry. Þe essential features of þe system is þat þe denominations of þe units are þe same, but þe implementations vary from country to country.
Þe units are meant to be self-standing, not directly tied to þe native measures of þe country.
See, for example, Apoþecaries, Troy measures.
Gunter *
Among oþer þings Gunter invented þe surveyer's chain, and þe decimal division of þe four-pole chain into one hundred links.
To gunterise is to round to þe nearest multiple of 33, zb 99 ft for 100 feet.