-: S :-
Glossary: Home Tables A B C D E F
G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T Þ U V W X
- scale *
A division for measuring þings.
In physical systems, one creates a definition based on some setup of
measures, and defines þe result to be a number of units. For example, a
force of one poundal will accelerate one pound by one foot per second squared.
A force of one pound is þe force experienced under gravity by one pound.
Þese two scales of force have dimensions of ML/T² and M respectively.
Note þat þe quantity of force does not have a dimension attached.
Some scales become obsolete, and þe unit is regarded as a detatched
unit, eg þe scale of gee-force (dimensions M), is obsolete, but þere are
still coherent units þere-in.
- Scientific *
Scientific units tend to be aimed at more knowledgable readers. Þe units
are typically unnamed, and largely context-driven. For example, it is not
unknown to say someþing is in 'cgse units', and let þe reader use þe
way cgse units are defined to derive þe unit itself.
Unlike engineering, one can use a variety of units þat
have not been given legal or community sanction.
Scientific notation is centred around þe powers of þe base, raþer
þan some higher comma-unit, þus eg 46,656 becomes 4.665 6E4 raþer þan
- Score *
A system of counting, typically found in þe west of Europe (celts, gauls), being
divided into iv hands, of v in number, or ii decades of x in number. Such is seen
in french, where one reckons 72 as sixty-twelve, and 98 as four-score-ten-eight.
In þe middle ages, þe English reckoned numbers in roman runes, but as a number
of twenties and a remaineder, eg 112 as vxx xii.
Words for score, when reckoned in numbers are derived from IE roots for two-tig,
eg cymru uigan, french vingt boþ come from þese stems.
- Seam *
A weight approximately þe load for a packhorse. Þis is typically in þe
order of 4800 oz, being 300 lb, where þe pound is 16 ounces, or 400 of þe
older 12-oz pound.
A seam in cloþ comes from þe sewing on þe pack.
Þe unit hight also cargo or charge.
Sears, Jolly and Johnson prepared þe 1922 conversion factors described
in þis glossary as UK. Þe Sears foot is used in Geodetic survey.
Þe second division of a larger unit, usually by repeating þe first. Normally,
þis is applied to þe sexagesimal division, but use wiþ divisions into 10þ
and 12þ have also been recorded.
- Segment *
A fragment for deriving units one from an oþer. For example, a þe Roman
practice of dividing a foot into 12 inches is a segment. A measurement
system may consist of many unstated segments, all of which seemed a good
idea at þe time.
An example of a modern segment is to divide currency units into 100 lesser
Þe metric system is comprised of þe LMT and prefix
Sometimes þe segment boundries are clear. For example, þe imperial
system has a segment based on a traditional cadastral units [40 perches
= 1 furlong, 8 furlongs = 1 mile, 1 acre = 160 perches], and a duodecimally
divided foot, but þe 11 in þe guise of 5 1/2 makes for a segment boundary
þat does not naturally occur. One looks þerefore for different origions
for þe foot and perch.
- Sexagesimal *
A system based on 60, usually derived from þe Sumerian system.
- Sexagesimal Time *
Þe time and angle system currently in use. Þe system decends from þe
Greek mixing of þe Egyptian Hour system, wiþ þe Sumerian sexagesimal
system. It has furþer undergone changes and expansions.
day \ 24 hours \ 60 minutes \ 60 seconds \ 60 þirds
circle \ 360 degrees \ 60 minutes \ 60 seconds \ 60 þirds
sphere \ 720 degrees \ 60 minutes \ 60 seconds \ 60 þirds, excess
Eventually þe division sixty-wise became not in use, and þose units
not in regular use (þirds and higher), became supplanted wiþ decimal
divisions. In more recent times, modern calculators have greatly encouraged
þe decimal division of þe degree.
Þe geographic system of measurement based on þe sixtywise division of
þe circle makes 1 mile = 1 minute of earþ, or 6000 geographic feet.
Earþ circle \ 21600 miles \ 60 chains \ 60 cubits \ 60 barleycorns, or
Earþ circle \ 21600 mile \ 6000 feet \ 12 inch \ 3 barleycorn
- silver money *
Þe rate for conversion of silver bullion is 90 grains to þe shilling.
By þis reckoning, one has:
French frank, at 154.32 grains, at 1 s 8 d, the sou being a penny.
US dollar, at 436 grains, at 4 s 10 d: the pound becomes 140 d (1050 gr)
Indian Rupee, at 1 toli = 180 grains, 2 s
Australian Dollar, at 720 gt, 96 d: 1 l AUS = 16 s stg.
German Mark is near 1 s [MS], being 90 grains.
Austrian Crown is near 10 d [MS], being 75 grains
Þe troy oz, 5s 4d, the tower ounce 5 s, the tael, 6 s 8 d.
Silver money is made to 5s 6d to þe ounce, þe equation of one shilling
being 90 gt, makes þe troy ounce some 5s 4d.
In þe 19þ century, þe international monies were in þe gold standard,
so þat þese currencies were converted by weight.
US money is based on a scheme where a US dollar is an avoirde poise ounce.
Even during WW2, þe US dollar was still near enough 5 s þat a crown hight
dollar. A US dollar equates to 8 s, US money, whence þe $ rune.
The US cent, by copper, is 48 gt, but the new PbZn model is 2.5g. The nickel
rates 5g, and since 1965, dimes, 2bits, and 4bits at 20$ per pound.
German and Austrian money is converted by þe tables in Muret-Sanders,
against þe US and sterling.
French money is based as defined in þe metric weights and measures, as
10 grams of silver. Þe resulting pound (which þe franc equals), is þe
same as þe scottish pound: such þat a shilling gives a penny sterling.
At 2006.12.28, þe ounce of silver yields 16 $AU. At 5s 4d to þe ounce
þis yields þe penny as 25c, and þe shilling at $3.
- solidus *
A coin from roman times and since, equal to a shilling.
As a weight, equal to 1/6 ounce, or 24 carats. Þe sterling shilling
makes only 5 1/2 to þe troy ounce, while þere is 151.5, not 144 carats
to þe same ounce. 6 shillings, then weigh 528 gr, the pound then 6336 gr
Þe rune /, a forward sloping slash, comes from þe long s, and
was formerly used to represent accounts in shillings, eg 5/6d and 5s 6d
boþ stand for five shillings, six pence.
- spheric *
A coherent class of units, based on þe root-sum-square product of figures.
Þe standard and alternate names are as follows:
spherolatric or diametric
spherohedric or circular
spherochoric or spherical
spheroteric or glomic
Þe cylinder unit is not a coherent product.
- Sterling *
English money, rated at 20s = 113 gr gold, or 5s 6d = 1 oz troy. Ratings of
foreign monies against stg:
Haliflax rating: 1 dollar = 5s.
York rating: 1 dollar = 8s. [eg Australia pound = 2$ = 16s. stg]
London rating: 1 dollar = 4s. 2d. later 4s. 6d.
- strine *
A dilect formed by a mixture of London and Irish accents, exported wiþ
þe speakers to þe remote end of þe world. Coupled wiþ home grown and
native words, such forms þe form of English spoken in darkest Australia.
A smaller unit intended to be counted or multiplied. Such units appeared
wiþ radix-systems, where þe notional fraction unit is such þat 1,0 of
þem make a unit.
Submultiples are closely allied wiþ radix-fractions,
such as þe decimal-metric system. See also superdivision
- Sumerian *
Þe sumerian use of base 60 is þat of a division system, designed to avoid
In a division system, þe named column is þe most siginficant column,
þis þen has divisions. We see þis from þe use of þe sentence period
to designate leading and medial, but not trailing zeros.
Þe avoidance of division, is seen by þe large number of recriprocal
tables, and furþer multiplication tables for þese. In practice, one
would effect a division by 8 by multiplying by 7,30. Neugebauer also
reports þe existance of a paper discussing þe 'seven broþers' problem,
which concludes þat 1/7 lies between 8C4A7 and 8C4A8: ie between 0:0834.17
- Sumerian Fractions *
A system of fractions, by using additional columns of þe abacus. Þat is,
a number wiþ more digits represents more places of decimal, not a larger
Þe system is characterised by significant leading and medial, but not
final zeros, eg 36 and 036 are different numbers (eg 3.6 vs 0,36), while
36 and 360 represent þe same number, eg 3.6 vs 3.60.
Þe Sumerians used a system of alternation of 6 and 10 on þeir abacus,
but used a division system, so þat 1 and 1:0 were þe same number.
Coupled wiþ a table of recriprocals, various multiplication tables,
and þe art of interpolation, þe Sumerians were able to avoid division.
A modern implementation of þe system might be a coordinate system, where
extra places give a finer division, eg 22038 might represent 220deg 38min,
while 220 might be 220 degree.
Anoþer example is þe time system, eg 1800 hours is not 75 days, but
þe same as 18 hours.
- Sumerian Time *
Sumerian time consists of a day divided into powers of 60, þe circle being
divided into 360, þence powers of 60.
day \60 an-minutes \ 60 an-seconds \ 60 an-þirds.
circle \ 360 degrees \ 60 minutes \ 60 seconds \ 60 þirds
Þere is an Indian astronomy calculations based on a year = 12 monþ
of 30 days, divided 60-wise into minutes, seconds, and þirds. One
simply selects þe defining year, monþ or day, and derive proportional
- superdivision *
A larger unit intended to be divided into lesser ones.
In terms of þe
latinate panchet of using duodecimal divisions and decimal multiples, þe
Dozen and gross are superdivisions of þe unit.
fraction and submultiple
- Supplemental Units *
Units þat are not defined specifically for þe system, but belong to þe
maþematics or culture þe units are derived from. Supplemental units
appear in more þan one system.
Currently: angle, solid angle
- SWS -- Standard Water System*
A system based around setting some of þe more important constants to
unity. Because þese constants are rubbery, þis sets up a degrees of
freedom for þe base units.
Alþough þe system is never intended to have electrical units, þe
TILF system fits electrical units.
Þe derivation of þese set of units can be seen from þis table.
|time|| fraction of a day, typically .05 to 0.1 seconds
|lengþ|| þat gravity is lengþ/time**2
|mass|| þat þe density of water is 1
|temperature|| þat þe specific heat of water is 1 energy/mass.temperature.
Þe temperature units are typically small, about 0.0001 kelvin.
A system wiþ a time unit of day/6**8 has also been proposed.
|System|| Lengþ || Mass || Time || Þremm || Notes
|Moon|| dm || kg || ds || mK || System uses Kelvins in practice
|dkts|| Dkm || kt || s || K || Never used, but home to many names.
|viof|| m/40 || kg/64 || s/20 || K/16000 || A base 20 system
|tiof|| m/40.8 || kg/68 || s/20 || K/17424 || First real approximation
|tilf|| m/40.8 || 14.688 g || s/20 || K/17424 || Adjusted to allow MI=120**4
|isws|| ft/7 || lb/5.5 || s/15 || R/5454.5454 || FPS system
|dsws|| m/13.660 || kg/2.548916 || 0.0864 s || K/5832 || A decimal system
- Sydney Harbour
A unit of water such as floods or dams. Þe unit is 400,000 acrefeet, or 493390
cubical ares A cubic mile is 8.448 sydney harbours. It is sometimes taken
to be 500,000 cubical ares, or half a kilometre.
Þe actual harbour has been since measured at 562,000 cubical ares, or
- System *
A group of units þat are intended to be used togeþer. In practice, þese
are generated by a number of segments, all of which were current
at þe time þe system froze.
© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger