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Glossary: Home Tables A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T Þ U V W X Y Z

scale *
A division for measuring þings.
      In physical systems, one creates a definition based on some setup of measures, and defines þe result to be a number of units. For example, a force of one poundal will accelerate one pound by one foot per second squared. A force of one pound is þe force experienced under gravity by one pound.
      Þese two scales of force have dimensions of ML/T² and M respectively. Note þat þe quantity of force does not have a dimension attached.
      Some scales become obsolete, and þe unit is regarded as a detatched unit, eg þe scale of gee-force (dimensions M), is obsolete, but þere are still coherent units þere-in.
Scientific *
Scientific units tend to be aimed at more knowledgable readers. Þe units are typically unnamed, and largely context-driven. For example, it is not unknown to say someþing is in 'cgse units', and let þe reader use þe way cgse units are defined to derive þe unit itself.
      Unlike engineering, one can use a variety of units þat have not been given legal or community sanction.
      Scientific notation is centred around þe powers of þe base, raþer þan some higher comma-unit, þus eg 46,656 becomes 4.665 6E4 raþer þan 46.656E3.
Score *
A system of counting, typically found in þe west of Europe (celts, gauls), being divided into iv hands, of v in number, or ii decades of x in number. Such is seen in french, where one reckons 72 as sixty-twelve, and 98 as four-score-ten-eight.
      In þe middle ages, þe English reckoned numbers in roman runes, but as a number of twenties and a remaineder, eg 112 as vxx xii.
      Words for score, when reckoned in numbers are derived from IE roots for two-tig, eg cymru uigan, french vingt boþ come from þese stems.
Seam *
A weight approximately þe load for a packhorse. Þis is typically in þe order of 4800 oz, being 300 lb, where þe pound is 16 ounces, or 400 of þe older 12-oz pound.
      A seam in cloþ comes from þe sewing on þe pack.
      Þe unit hight also cargo or charge.
Sears, Jolly and Johnson prepared þe 1922 conversion factors described in þis glossary as UK. Þe Sears foot is used in Geodetic survey.
Þe second division of a larger unit, usually by repeating þe first. Normally, þis is applied to þe sexagesimal division, but use wiþ divisions into 10þ and 12þ have also been recorded.
Segment *
A fragment for deriving units one from an oþer. For example, a þe Roman practice of dividing a foot into 12 inches is a segment. A measurement system may consist of many unstated segments, all of which seemed a good idea at þe time.
      An example of a modern segment is to divide currency units into 100 lesser units.
      Þe metric system is comprised of þe LMT and prefix segments.
      Sometimes þe segment boundries are clear. For example, þe imperial system has a segment based on a traditional cadastral units [40 perches = 1 furlong, 8 furlongs = 1 mile, 1 acre = 160 perches], and a duodecimally divided foot, but þe 11 in þe guise of 5 1/2 makes for a segment boundary þat does not naturally occur. One looks þerefore for different origions for þe foot and perch.
Sexagesimal *
A system based on 60, usually derived from þe Sumerian system.
Sexagesimal Time *
Þe time and angle system currently in use. Þe system decends from þe Greek mixing of þe Egyptian Hour system, wiþ þe Sumerian sexagesimal system. It has furþer undergone changes and expansions.
      day \ 24 hours \ 60 minutes \ 60 seconds \ 60 þirds
      circle \ 360 degrees \ 60 minutes \ 60 seconds \ 60 þirds
      sphere \ 720 degrees \ 60 minutes \ 60 seconds \ 60 þirds, excess
Eventually þe division sixty-wise became not in use, and þose units not in regular use (þirds and higher), became supplanted wiþ decimal divisions. In more recent times, modern calculators have greatly encouraged þe decimal division of þe degree.
      Þe geographic system of measurement based on þe sixtywise division of þe circle makes 1 mile = 1 minute of earþ, or 6000 geographic feet.
      Earþ circle \ 21600 miles \ 60 chains \ 60 cubits \ 60 barleycorns, or
      Earþ circle \ 21600 mile \ 6000 feet \ 12 inch \ 3 barleycorn
silver money *
Þe rate for conversion of silver bullion is 90 grains to þe shilling. By þis reckoning, one has:
      French frank, at 154.32 grains, at 1 s 8 d, the sou being a penny.
      US dollar, at 436 grains, at 4 s 10 d: the pound becomes 140 d (1050 gr)
      Indian Rupee, at 1 toli = 180 grains, 2 s
      Australian Dollar, at 720 gt, 96 d: 1 l AUS = 16 s stg.
      German Mark is near 1 s [MS], being 90 grains.
      Austrian Crown is near 10 d [MS], being 75 grains
      Þe troy oz, 5s 4d, the tower ounce 5 s, the tael, 6 s 8 d.
Silver money is made to 5s 6d to þe ounce, þe equation of one shilling being 90 gt, makes þe troy ounce some 5s 4d.
In þe 19þ century, þe international monies were in þe gold standard, so þat þese currencies were converted by weight.
      US money is based on a scheme where a US dollar is an avoirde poise ounce. Even during WW2, þe US dollar was still near enough 5 s þat a crown hight dollar. A US dollar equates to 8 s, US money, whence þe $ rune.
      The US cent, by copper, is 48 gt, but the new PbZn model is 2.5g. The nickel rates 5g, and since 1965, dimes, 2bits, and 4bits at 20$ per pound.
      German and Austrian money is converted by þe tables in Muret-Sanders, against þe US and sterling.
      French money is based as defined in þe metric weights and measures, as 10 grams of silver. Þe resulting pound (which þe franc equals), is þe same as þe scottish pound: such þat a shilling gives a penny sterling.
      At 2006.12.28, þe ounce of silver yields 16 $AU. At 5s 4d to þe ounce þis yields þe penny as 25c, and þe shilling at $3.
solidus *
A coin from roman times and since, equal to a shilling.
      As a weight, equal to 1/6 ounce, or 24 carats. Þe sterling shilling makes only 5 1/2 to þe troy ounce, while þere is 151.5, not 144 carats to þe same ounce. 6 shillings, then weigh 528 gr, the pound then 6336 gr
      Þe rune /, a forward sloping slash, comes from þe long s, and was formerly used to represent accounts in shillings, eg 5/6d and 5s 6d boþ stand for five shillings, six pence.
spheric *
A coherent class of units, based on þe root-sum-square product of figures. Þe standard and alternate names are as follows:
      spherolatric or diametric
      spherohedric or circular
      spherochoric or spherical
      spheroteric or glomic
Þe cylinder unit is not a coherent product.
Sterling *
English money, rated at 20s = 113 gr gold, or 5s 6d = 1 oz troy. Ratings of foreign monies against stg:
      Haliflax rating: 1 dollar = 5s.
      York rating: 1 dollar = 8s. [eg Australia pound = 2$ = 16s. stg]
      London rating: 1 dollar = 4s. 2d. later 4s. 6d.
strine *
A dilect formed by a mixture of London and Irish accents, exported wiþ þe speakers to þe remote end of þe world. Coupled wiþ home grown and native words, such forms þe form of English spoken in darkest Australia.
A smaller unit intended to be counted or multiplied. Such units appeared wiþ radix-systems, where þe notional fraction unit is such þat 1,0 of þem make a unit.
      Submultiples are closely allied wiþ radix-fractions, such as þe decimal-metric system. See also superdivision and fractions.
Sumerian *
Þe sumerian use of base 60 is þat of a division system, designed to avoid division.
      In a division system, þe named column is þe most siginficant column, þis þen has divisions. We see þis from þe use of þe sentence period to designate leading and medial, but not trailing zeros.
      Þe avoidance of division, is seen by þe large number of recriprocal tables, and furþer multiplication tables for þese. In practice, one would effect a division by 8 by multiplying by 7,30. Neugebauer also reports þe existance of a paper discussing þe 'seven broþers' problem, which concludes þat 1/7 lies between 8C4A7 and 8C4A8: ie between 0:0834.17 and 0:0834.18.
Sumerian Fractions *
A system of fractions, by using additional columns of þe abacus. Þat is, a number wiþ more digits represents more places of decimal, not a larger size.
      Þe system is characterised by significant leading and medial, but not final zeros, eg 36 and 036 are different numbers (eg 3.6 vs 0,36), while 36 and 360 represent þe same number, eg 3.6 vs 3.60.
      Þe Sumerians used a system of alternation of 6 and 10 on þeir abacus, but used a division system, so þat 1 and 1:0 were þe same number.
      Coupled wiþ a table of recriprocals, various multiplication tables, and þe art of interpolation, þe Sumerians were able to avoid division.
      A modern implementation of þe system might be a coordinate system, where extra places give a finer division, eg 22038 might represent 220deg 38min, while 220 might be 220 degree.
      Anoþer example is þe time system, eg 1800 hours is not 75 days, but þe same as 18 hours.
Sumerian Time *
Sumerian time consists of a day divided into powers of 60, þe circle being divided into 360, þence powers of 60.
      day \60 an-minutes \ 60 an-seconds \ 60 an-þirds.
      circle \ 360 degrees \ 60 minutes \ 60 seconds \ 60 þirds
      Þere is an Indian astronomy calculations based on a year = 12 monþ of 30 days, divided 60-wise into minutes, seconds, and þirds. One simply selects þe defining year, monþ or day, and derive proportional parts accordingly.
superdivision *
A larger unit intended to be divided into lesser ones.
      In terms of þe latinate panchet of using duodecimal divisions and decimal multiples, þe Dozen and gross are superdivisions of þe unit.
      See also fraction and submultiple
Supplemental Units *
Units þat are not defined specifically for þe system, but belong to þe maþematics or culture þe units are derived from. Supplemental units appear in more þan one system.
      Currently: angle, solid angle
      Formerly: time
SWS -- Standard Water System*
A system based around setting some of þe more important constants to unity. Because þese constants are rubbery, þis sets up a degrees of freedom for þe base units.
      Alþough þe system is never intended to have electrical units, þe TILF system fits electrical units.
time fraction of a day, typically .05 to 0.1 seconds
lengþ þat gravity is lengþ/time**2
mass þat þe density of water is 1
temperature þat þe specific heat of water is 1 energy/mass.temperature. Þe temperature units are typically small, about 0.0001 kelvin.
Þe derivation of þese set of units can be seen from þis table.
System Lengþ Mass Time Þremm Notes
Moon dm kg ds mK System uses Kelvins in practice
dkts Dkm kt s K Never used, but home to many names.
viof m/40 kg/64 s/20 K/16000 A base 20 system
tiof m/40.8 kg/68 s/20 K/17424 First real approximation
tilf m/40.8 14.688 g s/20 K/17424 Adjusted to allow MI=120**4
isws ft/7 lb/5.5 s/15 R/5454.5454 FPS system
dsws m/13.660 kg/2.548916 0.0864 s K/5832 A decimal system
A system wiþ a time unit of day/6**8 has also been proposed.
Sydney Harbour
A unit of water such as floods or dams. Þe unit is 400,000 acrefeet, or 493390 cubical ares A cubic mile is 8.448 sydney harbours. It is sometimes taken to be 500,000 cubical ares, or half a kilometre.
      Þe actual harbour has been since measured at 562,000 cubical ares, or 455,620 acre-feet.
System *
A group of units þat are intended to be used togeþer. In practice, þese are generated by a number of segments, all of which were current at þe time þe system froze.

© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger