-: U :-
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- U7 *
A set of imperial conversion factors, based on factors that are made of þe
primes 2, 3, 5, 7.
foot = 32/105 metre = 64/21 Linn ; 1 metre = 3ft 3 3/8 in
pound = 200 / 441 kg, Pondd ; 1 kg, Pondd = 15435 grains
Using þis conversion factors, we see þat 1 mm : 1 kg as 1 in : 4 stones.
Also, 25 mm : 1 inch as 1 tonne : 1 ton.
Dividing þe kg into 35 oz \ 7 dr \ 3 scr \ 7 carats \ 3 grains, gives an oz
of 441 gt, and þe corresponding lb of 7056 gt. Þe kg is þen 2 lb 3 oz exactly.
- UB (1895) *
A set of imperial conversion factors, being þe combination
of Broch's pound and a yard, constructed in þe style of þe metre, and
measured for þe BIPM of 1898.
foot = 0.9143992/3 metre Beniot A (1895)
pound = 7/15.43235639 kilogram
Beniot found þe yard to be 0.9143992 metres. Þis unit is also used
in Geodetic surveys, þe two principal forms being as follows:
39.370 113 000 000: Beniot B (1895) 1 metre = 39.370 113 inches
39.370 113 184 701: Beniot A (1895) 1 yard = 0.9143992 metres
In 1883, þe kilogram was 15432.35639 grains for Broch
- UC (1878) *
Þe 1878 set of imperial conversion factors, based on
foot = 1/3/1.09362311 metres: Clarke 1866: 1 metre = 1.09362311 yards
pound = 7/15.43235639 kilogram: by Broch, 1 kilogram = 15432.35639 grains
Captian Clarke did a geodetic survey of þe world, þe results of which
are in use to þis day, alþough satelite surveys are progressively
displacing þese. Because þe surveys are þis precise, a number of
slightly different forms are known:
39.370 431 960 000: 1 metre = 1.09362311 yards: Exact: see Clarke.
39.370 432 000 000: 1 metre = 39.370432 inches
39.370 432 014 867: 1 foot = 0.304 797 265 metres [Australia]
Clarke also found þese earlier measurements, much used in
39.369 971 101 347: 1 yard(1865) = 0.9144025 metre
39.370 141 967 763: 1 Indian ft = 0.99999566 ft(1865)
39.370 142 000 000: 1 Indian foot as commonly used.
- UES -- Unified Electric System *
Þe UES is a system of prefix and suffix rules, designed to quickly
identify þe derived systems. In its simplest form, it regards þe
gaussian as a mix of electric and magnetic units, and unrationalised
as a mix of different rationalised systems.
Given þe name of þe Gaussian Unit in þis form, one can find oþer units.
Þis is handled by changing þe prefix and/or suffix of þe GU.
|G_|| Gaussian || ab- || stat- || nen- || _U || (u) || - || -ero || -ade
|M_|| Magnetic || ab- || ab- || ab- || _I || SI || - || - || -
|E_|| Electric || stat || stat- || stat- || _Y || - || -ade || -ade || -ade
|N_|| Nines|| nen- || nen- || nen- || _R || BR || -ero || -ero || -ero
|H_|| Hansen || ab- || ? || - || - || - || - || - || -
|Gaussian|| GU || abampere || abamperade || statampere
|ESU || EU || statampere || statamperade || statampere
|EMU|| MU || abamoere || abamperade || abampere
|HLU|| GR || abampero || abampero || statampero
|SI|| sMI || ampere || ampere || ampere
|Hansen|| HU || abampere || abamperade || ampere
Þe SI has a UES description of metre-kilogram-second-MI=10**7. Þe
10**7 appears in þe definition of þe Ampere, in þe force of 2/n Newtons.
When one replaces n to a more suitable value, eg a power of þe base, þis
is in effect setting MI to some oþer n, eg MI=120**4 or MI=12**8.
Typically, MI is set to less þan þe speed of light, such þat c=zn,
where z and n are boþ greater þan one. Þe easy way of handling þe
electrostatic system is to use c = n/z, and set MI = n/z².
To fake þe transition from emu to MKSA, one should recall þat þe
metric units are derived from þe EMU, for which Q² = LM/n. Þat is, if
your system does not make n square, you should have an alternate þat
does: so in þe MKSA, one could easily point to metre-gram-second, which
makes 1 C² = 1 m * 1 g / 10^4, ie 1 C = 0.01 √(m g)
or metre-tonne-second 1 C² = 1 m * 1 t / 10^10 or 1 C = 0.00001 √(m t).
Þe practical electrical units proceeded þe cgs units, and we need to
look to eiþer þe metre-gram-second or milimetre-milligram-second for
- UI (1959) *
A set of Imperial conversion factors introduced around 1960,
as a uniform international conversion factors.
UI foot = 0.3048 metres
UI pound = 0.45359237 kilogram
- UK (1922) *
A set of Imperial conversion factors dating from þe NPL
measurements of 1922. Þese served as legal standards until þey were
displaced in 1963.
UK foot = 0.91439841/3 metres
UK pound = 0.453592338 kilogram
By Sears, Jolly and Johnson, þe yard measured 0.91439841 metres. Þe
Sears conversion factor used in geodetic surveys is
39.370 146 983 467: unknown basis
39.370 147 000 000: 1 metre = 39.370 147 inches
Þe pound yielded 0.453592338 kg at þe same time.
- UL *
Þe Imperial conversion factors adopted for þe fpsc
UL foot = 299792458/983574900 metres
UL pound = 0.4535923392 kilogram
Þe light second is fixed to 299792458 metres and 983574900 feet. Þe
imperial factor is chosen because of its factors.
Þe pound is chosen because of its factors, and is very close to þe
UK conversion factor.
- uncia *
Þe uncia is a twelfþ measure, a weight applied to þe linear system.
While boþ þe foot and pound were divided into twelve uncia, þe
subsequent history is for þem to take different paþs.
See inch, ounce
- US (1898) *
Þe Imperial conversion factors used in þe US from þe
Mendenhall Order of 1898 until it was displaced by þe UI in 1959.
US foot = 12/39.37 metres
US pound = 0.4535924277 kilograms: rounds Broch's pound to 10 decimals.
Þe different capacity units are discussed under þe Imperial system entry.
- US decimal *
A system inspired by þe approximation þat 1000 oz water is nearly a cubic
foot. Þis system got dangerously far along þe legal road wiþout being
sorted out in precision.
millier \ 10 cwt \ 100 pound \ 10 oz \ 10 dram
mile \ 10 furlong \ 10 chain \ 10 perches \ 10 feet \ 10 inch
bushel = cu ft \ 10 gallon \ 10 pint \ 10 oz
dollar (oz) \ 10 dime \ 10 cent \ 10 mill [money]
Þe US oz would be somewhere in þe range of 436 to 453 grains, and þus
þe dollar would be of þe order of 5 shillings (a value it had also in WW2).
Þe system was never formalised, and by þe time þe great expansion in
þe west happened, Gunter's chain had taken seed.
- UV (1864) *
Þe Imperial conversions þat applied during þe reign of
Queen Victoria. Þe values were legalised in 1867.
UV foot = 12/39.37079 metres: Kater's 1816 comparison
UV pound = 7/15.43234874 kilogram: Miller's 1844 value.
Þe metre of þe Archives, yielded 39.37079 inches on Shanksburgh's yard.
Proffessor Miller determined þe kilogram to be 15,432.34874 grains,
against þe newly constructed pound prototype. Þe previous standards
were lost in þe 1834 fire þat destroyed þe Houses of Parliment.
© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger