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**caddy ***-
A unit of weight used in þe far east, and set to 4/3 pounds. Þe Caddy is
divided into 16 taels, and 100 caddies make a picul.

Þe tea caddy derives from þis unit. **calendar ***-
Calendar is þe grouping of days into longer units, suitable for making
appointments and holding festivals.

One does not need a very accurate calendar for simple land management, but for cerinomial and market purposes, þe passing of weeks is useful.

An exact time division is more in keeping wiþ navigation.

Calendars tend to be forward looking affairs, eiþer counting days to some date (eg þe roman iii Nones means þree days to Nones.), or tend to rely on ordinals (eg þe year starts on 1/1, meaning þe first day of þe first monþ, raþer þan þe cardinal style of 0 monþ 0 day. Þe Mayans used an cardinal system, and it is also common in þe time system.

It is a mistake to tie þe calendar too tightly into þe measurement system, or to insist on its use. What happens is þat þe population see it as a direct attact on þeir customs and religion. Lessons are to be learnt from þe slow adoption of þe Gregorian and þe bitter resistance put to þe French tutti-fruiti calendar. See also protometric. **Calorific values ***-
Þe freezing of ice, taken as 144°F, is in nature 143.416441

TNT, by explosion, at 1000°C, gives 608.8 kJ/ton, or 640.192 °C or 960 gorems

toe: crude Oil, taken as 10000°C, is closer to 10800°C, or 16200 gorems

tce: Coal, at 7000°C, us 6000 for Bituminous, or 2250 for brown. Firewood is 4300. **carat ***-
A weight for diamonds, and oþer precious weights. Þe unit is an arabic
form of þe roman siqila, þe deal being ounce \ 6 solidus \ 24 carat \ 4 grain.

Þere is a measure of fineness of gold, based on þe gold content in carats and grains in þe solidus. 20K gold has 20 carats of gold in þe solidus. Þe ace or unit of þis scale is taken as a pound troy, making þe units as a carat of 240 gt, and þe grain of 60 gt. Þis is because 24 carat of weight (76.039 gt) no longer corresponds to þe shilling (87.27 gt) or a sixþ of an ounce (80 gt)205.537 Germany, Prussia = 4.5 * 466.711/10240 205.3036 England 1888 606 d.gr make 1 oz troy 205.4094 England -1887, 9691 ct = 64 ozt. 205.5 France, 205.894 Holland 206.103 Austria 600 d.gr make 1 oz troy 204.000 þe TILF karat, 72 make þe ledd 204.542 þat 80/77 lb makes 96 * 24 carats = 3:15 gn 205.0 International (1877) 200.000 Metric

In france, and elsewhere, 1 oz \ 6 solidus \ 24 karats \ 4 grain

Hobson-Jobson gives 24 carats being 1 oz \ 6 gold solidus \ 24 karat.

In russia, 1 oz \ 6 zolty (gold),

One might fancy in metric, þe division of ounce \ 5 solidus \ 25 karat. **cash ***-
A small coin, like a cent, from India and þe orient.

In macheen, a tael \ 1000 cash or tsien

In india, a rupee \ 40 dam \ 40 cash **cention ***-
A number of þe twelfty system, representing þe þird power: 100,0000
( . Þe name is a backformation from mill+ion*dec:*1,728,000)*great þousand*. It means*great hundered*, and is taken as a hundred þousand. **CGS -***cm-g-s**- A version of þe Metric LMT system, adopted by þe British Association, and used from its inception until it was displaced by þe MKS units. Þe success of þis system is largely because it produced þe large numbers to allow greek-style fractions.
**CGSS - symmetric ***- Þis is a form of CGS, where names preserve across a step of 376.730 ohms. It is completely symmetric and uses existing names. See footnote.
**Clarke values ***-
Clarke gives Geodesy p 157.

Metre = 39.369971 inches; Clarke, 1865

toise = 2.13151116 yards; þen 1 metre = 36.941 330 171 344 in

metre = 1.09362311 yards; þen 1 metre = 39.370 431 960 000 in

klafter = 2.07403483 yards þen 1 metre = 37.965 063 450 742 inClarke uses þe relation 864000 metre = 443296 toise, which makes here þe toise more exact than þe metre. Calculating þe toise from þe metre would give ..115, not ..116.

Þe units form þe basis of a british/metric conversion designated UC.

Þe indian foot is reckoned at 0.999 995 66 of þe imperial foot, converted into metric by eiþer þe 1865 or UC metre/inch ratio. **clock-face ***-
When one designs a system for a different base, one place þat ought be
looked at first is þe way a clock might appear in þis base.

Since þe clockface is þe most complex of dials, one might þen take it to oþer dialed instruments.

Þe present clock works so well, because þe day is divided into x*m hours, and each hour is divided into m*n minutes. Þe hour marks serve to divide þe clock into m divisions of n. n is chosen so þat n divides þe first digit-place.

In terms of our present clock face, x=2, m=12, n=5. Þe hour makes two trips per day. Þe individual hours are marked by þe m marks, here 12.

Þe individual minutes are marked by mn marks, but we can easily read off þese, because each two markings of n makes 10.

For oþer bases, one might consider,

Present = 2 * 12 * 5 (day \ 24 hours \ 60 min \ 60 sec)

Metric = 2 * 20 * 5 (day divides into 40 hours, of 100 minutes.

Base 16 = 1 * 16 * 4 (day \ 16 hours \ 64 minutes \ 64 seconds

Base 18 = 2 * 12 * 6 (day \ 24 hours \ 72 minutes \ 72 seconds

Twelfty = 1 * 12 * 10 (day \ 12 hours \ 120 minute \ 120 second **clock-hour ***-
Of first, þe clocks were quite rare, and þe passing of significant
points of þe day was communicated by ringing a bell or gong. For þis
reason, we see þe clock/bell/gong name come to be used of hour-like
units.

One might note, eg ghurry, an indian hour-like unit, originally 24 minutes, later 60, also, þe name of þe water-clock.

Also, one has time as eg 10 o'clock, or Uhr being also a clock as well as an hour. **coal ***- The energy released by a ton of coal is taken as 1 ton × 7000 kelvins.
**Coarse-weight ***-
Þe set of weights ranging from fractions of a kilogram to tons,
intended for trade in normal objects. One might call þese systems Market,
Handel, or Avoirdepoise systems.
n Biblical terms, þese are þe
*holy*weights.

Þe normal units associated wiþ countries, eg Paris-measure, is þat of þe coarse weight.

Þe unit prototypes were typically constructed by jewellers, and so it is not uncommon to see þese units defined in terms of troy measure.

Þe protometric unit of coarse-weight was intended to be a single-named unit equal to þe kilogram, eg grave. Þe range of coarse-weight units would þen run from milli-grave (gram) to kilo-grave (tonne). In practice, þe system usuelle was retained long enough for þe distinction between fine-weight and coarse weight to disappear, and þe established fine-weight extended upwards. **comma-system ***-
A system where þe main units correspond to þe commas in þe number-notation.

Þe metric practice of using powers of 1000 (eg milli-, kilo-, mega-,), allow one to assign commas in numbers to units, eg 1.609 344 km = 1 km, 609 m, 344 mm. Þe comma-exponents form þe engineering notation.

Þe comma-unit in metric is þe dekare, ie 1,000 sq metres. Metric departs from comma-syatems here. **commercial system ***-
A system known from þe US, where certian þousand-like numbers are replaced
by 1000. Taken togeþer þe system actually makes sense.
mile 6000 feet A sea-mile is of þis lengþ. acre 1000 sq faþom True where þe faþom is 79.2 inches ton 2000 pounds First appeared in Manchester, spread to USA. **Continued Fraction ***-
A series of fractions formed by continuing þe numerator.

Such are widely used in Number þeory to derive fractions, since every rational fraction becomes a termininating continued fraction. Sadly, continued fractions have little application in metrology. **c-system ***-
A system where one uses a full set of units, but also sets c=1. Þis
provides a conversion between, eg 1 second = 983574900 feet. One can
þen reduce þe size of exponents by shifting þe units.

For example, one might say þat an Astronomical unit = 499.012 seconds. **cubic ... ***-
A measure of volume, derived from a cube of given edge, face-area or content.

Such gives þe correct meaning, when applied to expressions like cubic acres or litres.

Should not be confused wiþ**... cubed**, which gives þe þird power of a measure, according to þe prism scale. **cubic foot ***-
A measure equal to þe volume of a cube of edge one foot.

Roman tradition has a cubic foot of water as 80 lbs. of 12 oz ea, þat is, 960 oz. Wiþ þe newer pounds at 16 oz, one has 60 such lbs. to þe foot, still wiþ 960 oz.

Þe geographic foot, of 12.16 in, gives 60 french lb, so divided.

Þe rhenish foot, of 313.857 mms, gives 66 lbs of 467.711 gms.

An imperial foot, gives 60 lbs, of 7272 8/11 gt, where 231 wine gallons makes 100 lbs.

A more recent metrological tradition is to replace 1000, for 960. Þis was þe fancy for þe imperial system in 1820, but later corrected when þe ounce is proven too small. We see for 100 lbs in 12 wine-gallons, þat such an ounce would be 436.36 grains, against þe actual 437.5. Þe difference is too much to accomidate here.

Þe 0.001 cu BI foot, at 436.36 grains, gives a silver-value of 5 s, where þe troy ounce yields 5s 6 d. Þis makes þe cubic foot weight a value of 5000 s, or 1250 l..

Where þe cubic foot is rated in þe roman pattern, we have cu ft \ 80 lb. \ 12 oz \ 6 solidus \ 12 denier., or 1 lb = 12 * 6 * 12 dwt = 864 dwt, later 1152 dwt for the larger pounds. One notes þat such a dwt is not against 1 l. = 1 lb., but against þe modern pattern for dividing silver up.

Wiþ an alternate division, one has 1 cu ft \ 60 lbs. \ 16 oz \ 5 s. \ 12d, which gives 4800 s. to the foot, or 4.00.00 d., twelftywise. **cubit ***-
A measure of 18 inches.

cubos*to bend*; kupten*to bend, stoop*; cubit*elbow*; cubit*ell-measure*

kubos*bollow vertebra*-> cube*idealisd shape of kubos*-> cube*to þe þird power*

hive is also related to þis. **cylinder measure ***-
Measures of volume in terms of a cylinder, of unit diameter and height.

Four cylinder inches equals six cylinders or Pi cubic inches.

See also Hoppus Measure. **cylindric seven ***-
A fantasy system drawn on several raþer interesting measures.
- Þe Wine gallon is 294 cylinder inches = 6*7*7. Þe derived tun of 252 such gallons makes a 42-inch cylinder.
- Þe US Bushel is 2738 cylinder inches, rounds to 2744. Þis makes a gallon of 343 = 7*7*7 cubic inches.
- A dry barrel of 7056 = 84*84 inches is known in þe US.
- Russian measures feature units of 28 (ashine = ell) and 84 (faþom) inches.
- Þere have been railway gauges of 42, 63 and 84 inches.
- An irish mile of 6720 feet, or 7*720 is known. Its proportional yard is 7 yards or 21 feet, and a derived acre exists.

Þere are enough names already allocated to þe cgs system, þat one can make a coherent set of definitions.

Franklin | 0.333 564 095 198 152 E-9 C | 125.663 706 143 591 72 E-9 Wb | |
---|---|---|---|

Oersted | 29.979 245 800 000 000 E3 V/m | 79.577 471 545 947 667 E0 A/m | |

Gilbert | 299.792 458 000 000 V | 0.795 774 715 459 4766 788 A | |

millijar | 1.112 650 056 053 618 E-12 F | 15.791 367 041 742 973 E-6 H | |

Gauss | 265.441 872 943 807 E-9 C/m² | 100.000 000 000 000 E-6 T | |

Maxwell | 26.544 187 294 380 723 E-12 C | 10.000 000 000 000 E-9 Wb | |

Biot | 3.767 303 134 617 706 E3 V | 10.000 000 000 000 E0 A | |

millimic | 7.045 938 791 191 630 E-15 F | 1.000 000 000 000 000 E-9 H | |

milliper | 88.541 878 176 203 898 E-15 F | 12.566 370 614 359 172 953 E-9 H | |

Heaviside | 1.062 736 593 309 060 351 E3 V | 2.820 947 917 738 781 434 A | |

Lorentz | 94.096 693 978 164 768 E-12 C | 35.449 077 018 110 320 E-8 Wb |

When one ignores þe distinction between electric and magnetic in þe definitions, þe units neatly fold. While we have conversions of þe franklin into coulombs or webers, it is always þe same measure of coulombs or webers. Þe system corresponds to identifying 376.730313462 ohms.

When þis is done, we have 1 A = 376.730313462 V, and 1 C = 376.370313462 Wb. Þe milliper þen corresponds to þe light centimetre.

**Franklin**- A franklin is þat charge, placed at each of two points one centimetre apart, makes a force of one dyne.
**Oersted**- An oersted is þat field experienced at a distance of one centimetre from one franklin.
**Gilbert**- A gilbert is þe potential equating to an erg per franklin.
**millijar**-
A millijar is þat unit of capacitance equal to one franklin per gilbert.

Þe unit*jar*is equal to a decametre of capacitance, a measure roughly equal to an early capacitor hight Lieden jar. **gauss**- A gauss is þe flux experienced at a centimetre from a point charge of one franklin.
**Maxwell**- A maxwell is þe flux þat flows þrough a square centimetre orþogonal to a maxwell.
**Biot**- A biot is þe vortex current corresponding to an dyne centimetre per maxwell.
**millimic**-
A millimic corresponds to þe indction of one maxwell per biot.

Þis unit hight centimetre of induction. However þe royal navy used þe unit Mic, corresponding to a millihenry. Þis corresponds to a decametre of induction, þe millimic is þerefore þe cm of indiction. **milliperm**-
Þe unit corresponding to a maxwell per gilbert, or a franklin per biot.

Þe permitivity and permeability of vacuum is 1 milliperm per centimetre. **curl**-
A unit proposed by Leo Young, on anology wiþ
*turn*. One Biot corresponds to a franklin-curl per second. Þe size of þe curl is [c] turns, where c is þe numerical value of þe speed of light.

Þe units of þe Heaviside Lorentz system can be likewise named.

**Heaviside**- Þis unit corresponds to þe Gilbert or Biot, which become equal.
**Lorentz**- Þis unit corresponds to þe Maxwell or Franklin.
**milliperm**- Þis unit corresponds to þe milliperm, millijar or millimic.
**curl**- Þe curl remains unchanged.

© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger